Perihelion is the name for a discrete location a planet occupies momentarily once during every cycle of its periodic motion about the sun; the planet when at this location is nearest the sun. The location does not remain the same from one cycle to the next. Since successive cycles occur at different times, the location changes with the progress of time. This displacement of place with time constitutes perihelion motion of a spatial location at definite, measurable time and motion rates. The object of this paper is twofold: A. to show that the well-known excess precession rate of Mercury’s perihelion is a function not of gravitation, as supposed by the general relativity theory of Einstein, but rather of the three-dimensional and discrete character of time (and space) and B. to indicate that the time involved in perihelion motion is not merely clock time2, as is generally assumed.

## Reciprocal System of theory

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