Replacing the Foundations of Astronomy

The historical development of astronomy is described, with respect to the derivation of Kepler's Laws and their subsequent application by Newton. It is described how the two-dimensional nature of movement of planetary bodies is transformed into one-dimensional movement by the application of an inverse-square law. It is also shown how the Newtonian method of adding perturbations to the inverse-square law for the purpose of planetary calculations is simply a repetition of the Ptolemaic epicycles in algebraic form. The path forward is described that avoids the Newtonian dead end and tackles the planetary system on its own terms as a living system.

Reciprocal System Research Society

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