The more complete understanding of physical existence opens the door to an exploration of existence as a whole, including those non-physical areas that have hitherto had to be left to religion and related branches of thought. It is now evident that our familiar material world is not the whole of existence, as modern science would have us believe. It is only a part—perhaps a very small part—of a greater whole.
—Dewey B. Larson, Universe of Motion, 1984
The Reciprocal System of physical theory (“RS” theory) was created by chemical engineer Dewey B. Larson during the 1940s to 1950s, after noticing that properties of the elements in the Periodic Table could be easily determined if one were to assume that time had three dimensions, instead of one. Larson realized that these three, temporal dimensions had the same properties as our three, conventional spatial dimensions, which led him to the conclusion that there were actually three dimensions of space/time, each dimension of space pairing up with a dimension of time as a ratio. The inverse relation of space to time is what is commonly called speed (miles per hour, meters per second, etc), or in a more general sense, motion. By assuming that motion rather than matter was the actual building block of Nature, he was able to deduce the structure of our physical universe through natural consequences, from the smallest particle to the largest galaxy.
At the encouragement of his neighbor, friend, classmate and fraternity brother, Nobel laureate Linus C. Pauling, Larson published his preliminary findings in his 1959 book, The Structure of the Physical Universe as an overview to his “universe of motion.” Over the course of the years, Larson published ten more books documenting his theory, covering physics, chemistry, electronics and astronomy, with his final volume, Beyond Space and Time (published posthumously in 1996) demonstrating that his “theory of motion” was of general applicability, venturing successfully into the realm of life, general biology, ethics and metaphysics.
Concepts behind the Reciprocal System
Larson discovered something quite remarkable: the dimensional relationship between space and time as “natural units,” not requiring any other units of measure (distance, duration, length, mass, etc., are all described by exponents of space and time). By using that relationship, he was able to define two, simple postulates that build a theoretical universe that closely resembles the observed universe, from the very small (subatomic) to the extremely large (galactic) scales. Same rules, different scales!
The physical universe is composed of one component, motion, existing in three dimensions, in discrete units and with two, reciprocal aspects, space and time.
The physical universe conforms to the relations of ordinary, commutative mathematics, its primary magnitudes are absolute and its geometry is Euclidean.
In his book, New Light on Space and Time (1965), Larson documents fifteen “outstanding achievements” of his theory, that conventional science is still having trouble with:
Photons: the wave-particle duality as a natural consequence of the structure of the photon as a “unit of motion.”
Radiation: why radiation is transmitted between objects without any intervening medium, what Larson calls “the progression of the natural reference system,” and modern astronomers now refer to as the “Hubble Expansion.”
Gravitation: the origin, properties and behavior of gravity as an inward, scalar motion—no forces or “graviton” particles needed.
Galactic recession: the discovery that gravity has a finite limit and anything beyond it is carried by the progression of the natural reference system—expanding in a scalar fashion.
Atomic structure: the atoms are compound rotations, hence they have no parts (protons and neutrons) that need to be held together. No need for magical “strong force interaction” to keep the nucleus together.
Velocity of light: is constant, because it is the only thing that is not moving, as it is the “datum” of the natural reference system (the RS is based on unity, not zero/infinity). The 3D time aspect of speed removes all the “infinite mass” and supra-light speed paradoxes by accounting for motion in time, as well as motion in space.
Cohesion of solids: the progression of the natural reference system, astronomy’s “Hubble expansion,” scales all the way down to atoms—and is actually responsible for atomic cohesion into molecules. Larson’s solution to chemical bonds is simple: rotational speed and geometric orientation. When alignment and speeds cancel out, you have a stable molecule.
Physical state: which is a property of the molecule, not the aggregate. Each atom has a “temperature” that is a vibration in time operating inversely to create repulsion in space, resulting in the states of matter. Because the Reciprocal System considers time to be 3 dimensional, it has nine states of matter: solid, liquid, vapor, gas (vapor and gas are combined in modern chemistry), inverse gas, inverse vapor, inverse liquid, inverse gas (plasma, Bose-Einstein condensates, supercritical fluids…) and “thredule,” a state that is observable on the sun as “sunspots.”
Galactic explosions: why and how galaxies explode (like M87) and why they produce radio galaxies and quasar pairs as a consequence.
Electric current: what electricity and electrons actually are and why an electron in a wire behaves differently than static electricity.
Electric charges: the nature of charge as a 1 dimensional, rotational vibration.
Radioactivity: what causes radioactivity and why decay breaks down as it does.
The Cosmic Sector—the realm of 3D time: incorrectly acknowledged as the “universe of antimatter” (actually “inverse matter”) being the unobserved half of the universe. This “universe of time” accounts for all non-local interactions, from the behavior of fields (demonstrating how “time effects space”) to the origin of the biological soul (a “life unit”) and metaphysics (a “control unit”).
The origin of Cosmic rays: they come from the Cosmic sector, the radiation of stars constructed of time, rather than of space.
Chemical elements and the Periodic Table: why certain elements have similar properties, their periodicity, structure and limitations—a natural consequence of increasing, angular velocity of the internal, atomic structure.
Larson predicted some events that must exist as a logical consequence of his postulates that had not yet been discovered, from new forms of atomic disintegration (age limit, from magnetic ionization—still unknown to modern science) to quasi-stellar objects (QSOs or Quasars, predicted and published in The Structure of the Physical Universe, years before one was actually spotted by astronomers.)
Continuing Research into the Reciprocal System
The Reciprocal System was, however, just a really good first draft of a generalized theory of everything (TOE) and does have its problems. Members of the International Society of Unified science, the non-profit organization formed in 1979 to develop and promote Larson’s discovery, found that research done in the areas of alternative science and philosophy had solutions to these problem areas and took it upon themselves to do a reevaluation of Larson’s original concepts, merge them with these other understandings and see what resulted. The result is RS2—an updated version of Larson’s Reciprocal System that provides integrated solutions to the problems discovered with Larson’s original system.
RS2 is, by no means, purported to be “the ultimate answer to life, the universe and everything.” It is nothing more than a second draft of Larson’s Reciprocal System (hence the name, RS2). We are constantly updating and revising it as other problem areas are found or better solutions become evident.
We do not expect it to ever be accepted as a mainstream “theory of everything” and do not even promote it as anything but theoretical research, which is exactly what it is: a new way of looking at old ideas—something we need a lot more of in this world, but is now rarely attempted due to “peer pressure” to conform to existing scientific dogma.
What we are after is the truth behind the design of the Universe, in whatever form it reveals itself to be. We are making our research available here for the benefit of those who are interested in seeking this kind of truth.
This site presents a summary of some of our ongoing research and includes material introduced in the RS2 Theory discussion forums. Please visit the forum for recent developments.
If you wish to explore Larson's universe of motion, the following links are available, as tabbed sections:
- ReciprocalSystem.ORG: The main page of the Reciprocal System of theory web site, where announcements and site information is presented. (Old site, being deprecated, RStheory.org).
- Research materials: Books, papers, audio recordings and videos about the Reciprocal System of theory. Material is added here as time and OCR skill permits.
- Forum: A discussion forum concerning RS concepts, now part of the RS2 reevaluation initiative.
- DB Larson: Biographical information on Dewey Larson, including photos and interviews.
- ISUS: The International Society of Unified Science, a non-profit, scientific, educational corporation based in Utah in the United States that continues to keep the RS alive.
- Store: On-line store where books on the Reciprocal System can be purchased. Some of these books are also available on Amazon, at a higher cost due to Amazon's fees.
- RS2: Continuing research and development of the Reciprocal System, based on a correlation between Larson's theory and artificial realities used in computer simulations. RS2 has a wider scope than Larson's original work, and includes many extensions into the biological, psychological and metaphysical fields that Larson just started to address in his last book, Beyond Space and Time.
- PDF Archive: An expanding collection of books and papers about the Reciprocal System, from various authors. We have made this material free for personal use, which means don't upload to other sites without permission, as most of it IS copyrighted material. Contact the Society for details.
Thank you for visiting.