The Fifth Force

Dewey B. Larson
755 N.E. Royal Court
Portland, Oregon 97232

February 23,1986

Dear Jan :

The more I think about the “fifth force” report, the more it looks like an opportunity, regardless of whether the results reported by the investigators are valid or not. So I have initiated some further activity. I have made arrangements for sending letters to all of the physicists who worked on the project, and I have asked Rainer to write a letter to the Scientific American. They published a news item on the investigation in the March issue. A report was also published in Nature (Jan. 22), and I believe it would be a good idea to get Nehru to write to them, They are rather partial to letters from India. If you have the time, and the inclination, I would appreciate your writing to Nehru, explaining what we are trying to do, and inviting him to join in the effort.

In the course of figuring out different ways of saying the same thing, so that there will be some variety in our letters, it has occurred to me that the factors which have a bearing on this situation can be expressed in a way that makes a solid case against both the “expansion of the universe” theory and the original version of the Big Bang that attributed the galactic recession to an explosion. I want to pass this on to you for whatever use you may be able to make of it. The argument goes like this:

1.The increase in the speed of the galactic recession with distance indicates that at extreme distances, where the effect of gravitation is negligible, aggregates of matter move outward at the speed of light.

2. Current theory ascribes this outward motion to an “expansion of the Universe.”

3. If this theory (or the original Big Bang hypothesis) is correct, the outward speed is a function of the distance, and would be very much lower at short distances. Consequently, physical objects in our local environment that are not subject to any significant gravitational effects should have no more than a small outward speed.

4. Actually, these massless objects—neutrinos, for instance—move outward at the speed of light in exactly the same way as the galaxies at extreme distances. Thus the outward motion is uniform, irrespective of distance.

5. We thus find that all physical objects move outward at the speed of light. Those with mass are coincidentally moving inward by reason of gravitation. The observed scalar (inward or outward) motion is the difference.

6. The fact that the speed of the outward motion is constant, regardless of distance, means that all of the increase in the speed of the galactic recession with distance is due to the reduction in the inward gravitational motion. (We have an explanation for the fact that the relation is linear.)

7. This rules out all theories that call for a variation of the outward speed with distance. Both the “expansion of the universe” and the Big Bang explosion are thus negated by the observations.

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