The historical development of astronomy is described, with respect to the derivation of Kepler's Laws and their subsequent application by Newton. It is described how the two-dimensional nature of movement of planetary bodies is transformed into one-dimensional movement by the application of an inverse-square law. It is also shown how the Newtonian method of adding perturbations to the inverse-square law for the purpose of planetary calculations is simply a repetition of the Ptolemaic epicycles in algebraic form. The path forward is described that avoids the Newtonian dead end and tackles the planetary system on its own terms as a living system.
The Ultimate Answer to Life, the Universe and Everything