*The Theosophist*, July 2000, pp. 377-383

## Newton, Einstein and Beyond

From Newton’s second Law we know that when a force **F** acts on a mass **m**, the acceleration (rate of change of speed) **a**, produced is given by **a** = **F**/**m**. However, experiments conducted on electrically accelerated particles showed, quite conclusively, that at very high speeds this is not the case. The magnitude of the acceleration produced by the same force gradually tapers off in a manner that it tends toward zero as the particle speed approaches the speed of light. So much so, Einstein had shown that no material particle could ever be accelerated to this limiting speed. Since then it has become an accepted dogma in all the physical fields. Even in situations where the * empirical evidence* clearly indicated existence of faster than light speeds—like in some quasar redshifts—the scientists simply denied the facts, because of their unquestioned servitude to Einstein’s ideas. This, of course, has had the disastrous result of stumping the development of physical theory.

Now on hindsight we can see that, while it might be true that no material particle could be accelerated to superluminal speeds, Einstein and the others have obviously overlooked the possibility that such speeds might exist naturally on their own right—there might well be phenomena or entities that were created at these superluminal speeds and stayed in that speed range for ever, without being able to decelerate to speeds below that of light. The theoretical conclusion that the light speed barrier cannot be crossed (by processes known to us) might still be valid.

Recognition of this logical possibility opens up a new perspective to the study of the physical universe. Let us refer to Figure 1, which depicts the entire speed range from zero to infinity. To avoid speaking of any units in the discussion we shall take the speed of light as Unity in this scale. (The rationale for this will be apparent shortly.) The hatched portion indicates the speeds (space/time) from zero to unity, the range possible in our universe, according to the prevalent dogma. Remembering that the (mathematical) inverse of unity is unity, and the inverse of infinity is equivalent to zero, and by representing the speed range of unity to infinity in terms of units of inverse speed (time/space) we arrive at Figure 2. We see herein a theoretically possible symmetric universe, with a Sector in which the possible speeds range from zero to unity, and another Sector in which *the roles of space and time are interchanged*, with applicable inverse speeds ranging from zero to unity. Let us call the latter the *inverse Sector.* Unit speed, which is identical to unit inverse speed, acts as the inter-sector boundary.

**Local versus Global Viewpoints**

At this juncture we would like to point out the important fact that *space* and *time*, though they appear so drastically different to our consciousness, are simply the two aspects of motion (speed), inversely related to speed. The following citation from *The Secret Doctrine* should bring home the point:

“…

SpaceandTime… being simply the forms of that which is the Absolute all…”^{1}

“Space and Time are one.

“…the

Puranasinsist on the identity ofVishnuwith Time and Space…”^{2}

And from *The Mahatma Letters*

“The “Deep” is

Space—both male and female.”^{3}

Even though they seem different to our consciousness, space and time are the same *from the standpoint of the Universe*, being merely the two aspects of motion. With the understanding of this mutually symmetrical (but inverse) nature of space and time, the possibility of the existence of the two Sectors of the universe (depicted in Figure 3) becomes totally logical. The inhabitants of the speed Sector view the universe as though pervaded in a three-dimensional spatial frame coupled with a scalar progression of time. (The Sanskrit root *Vis*, of *Vishnu*, means to pervade.) The denizens of the inverse speed Sector view the universe as though pervaded in an analogous three-dimensional temporal frame (see Figure 3) coupled with a uniform scalar progression of space. Since our space would be their time and vice versa, sentient beings in either Sector of the physical universe cannot determine which Sector they are in because both Sectors are identical from that Sector’s viewpoint.

We have now come to another significant juncture where we can benefit from the knowledge of *The Secret Doctrine.* Quoting from the Proem:

“Its one absolute attribute, which is itself, eternal, ceaseless Motion, is called in esoteric parlance the “Great Breath,” which is the perpetual motion of the universe…”

^{4}

Compare also with what the *Mahatmas* state:

“We say and affirm that motion—the universal perpetual motion which never ceases, never slackens nor increases its speed…but goes on like a mill set in motion whether it has anything to grind or not…”

^{5}

The Crucial point to be realized is that we humans are prone to think that the natural datum, or starting point, for every phenomenon, as we are used to see, is zero speed. But, as the citations above delineate, the natural datum for the universe is *perpetual motion at constant speed,* whether there is Manifestation (*Manvantara*) or * Pralaya*—recall the words *‘whether it has anything to grind or not!’* It is now only one more step to recognize that this constant perpetual motion is the *unit speed* that we depicted in Figure 3. Therefore the null state of the universe is a ceaseless outward progression of space coupled with the analogous progression of time. This is exactly what our astronomical observations show—that all the distant galactic systems are receding from each other. The astronomers now realize that this is not a motion of the galaxies *through* space, away from some center, but is the steady expansion of space itself.

The *Reciprocal System*^{6} is the general theory of the physical universe developed just on this foundation—taking Motion as the basic constituent of the universe, and that all the forces and phenomena are the several differentiations or modifications of this one existent—motion. We have from *The Secret Doctrine,*

“The Occultists… assert that all the so-called Forces of Nature, Electricity, Magnetism, Light, Heat, etc., etc., far from being modes of motion of material particles, are… in their ultimate constitution, the differentiated aspects of that Universal Motion which is discussed… in the… Proem.”

^{7}

And from *The Mahatma Letters*:

“It is

motionwith its resulting conflicts, neutralization, equilibration, correlation, to which is due the infinite variety which prevails.”^{8}

## Are Space and Time Quantized?

The fact that the Universal Motion can neither slacken nor increase its speed implies that *speed is quantized*, and all that is possible is unit speed. Once the unit speed exists as uniform outward progression, it becomes possible to superimpose on it an inward progression. The Reciprocal System shows gravitation is nothing but such inward progression. However, this inward progression could be either inward in space or inward in time. Gravitation in space results from the downward differentiation of the primary motion, which produces matter as we know it. On the other hand, the upward differentiation of the primary motion produces gravitation in time, or the inverse gravitation, arising from the ‘matter’ of the inverse Sector, namely, the inverse matter. We do not normally encounter the particles of inverse matter for the simple reason that they form aggregates in three-dimensional time, and not in three-dimensional space. They are widely and randomly distributed in our familiar three-dimensional spatial frame.

Now the reason why space and time appear so different to our observation should be apparent. In the local environment the inward motion of gravitation counterbalances the outward progression of space and we see a stationary space. The concomitant outward progression of time, however, is unchecked and we observe it as a scalar progression—scalar because whatever number of dimensions time has, there is no geometric relationship between them and the dimensions of space. In the inverse Sector, gravitation acts inward in time and counterbalances the primary outward progression of time, giving a stationary temporal frame.

Radiation, since it moves at unit speed, is at the boundary of the two Sectors and is visible from either Sector, in whichever Sector it originates. Therefore, the radiation from the stars of the inverse Sector should show up as radiation of high inverse temperature—that is, low temperature—and with absolutely isotropic spatial distribution. This is exactly what we observe in the Cosmic Microwave Background! In fact, by the Reciprocal System theory we can even arrive at the precise value of the temperature of the Background radiation. Conventional theories, since they assume that this radiation was emitted by the stars of our Sector, have pretty difficult task reconciling its absolute isotropy with the patent non-uniform distribution of the stellar aggregates in space.

Another implication of the existence of unit speed is that it has to be the ratio of a *unit* of space to a *unit* of time. Thus the Reciprocal System points out that both *space and time are quantized.* We may recall that, at the turn of the century, Max Planck had come up with a similar astonishing discovery, that energy is quantized, and set the pace for the subsequent revolutions in the development of science.

The primary progression (motion) is always outward from unity. In the familiar three-dimensional spatial frame, away from unity is in the same direction as away from zero. But inside the unit (quantum) of space away from unity is toward the zero. Therefore the primary motion appears as a perpetual *inward* motion in this region. Since gravitation, as mentioned earlier, always exists in opposition to the primary background motion, it manifests as an outward motion—that is, as repulsion—in the region inside the quantum of space. Quoting from *The Secret Doctrine:*

“…the Occultists are not alone… in rejecting… the “gravity” of modern science… and in accepting instead

attractionandrepulsion. They see, moreover, in these two opposite Forces only the twoaspectsof the universal unit…”^{9}

“There are forces co-existent with gravitation of which they {scientists} know nothing, besides that other fact that there is no gravitation properly speaking, only attraction and repulsion.”

^{10}

By this insight the Reciprocal System explains *all types *of bonds (cohesion) in solids and calculates accurately the inter-atomic distances of all the substances.

Imagine two atoms moving towards each other. They cannot approach to a distance less than a quantum of space because that is the smallest space that can exist. However, by virtue of the inverse relation between space and time, the two particles can move *outward in time* (which is equivalent to inward in space) until a force (motion) equilibrium is established. It is this change over, from motion in space to motion in time that happens inside the quantum of space, which gives rise to the strange phenomena of the quantum domain, like non-locality, tunneling, lack of definite trajectory, wave-particle duality, to mention a few.

## Matter of Life

Further, we note that in the physical universe, left to them, all structures move spontaneously form states of greater organization (or order) to states of lesser organization. In other words, the *available energy* goes on decreasing. But in the case of *biological units*, like the living cells or higher life, the organization level is either maintained or increases, against all odds. It is still an enigma how life is possible at all, in the material universe, if we stick to purely mechanistic explanations.

The Reciprocal System shows that while available energy goes on decreasing in our Sector, the inverse is true in the inverse Sector, namely, the available * inverse energy* decreases spontaneously. This is tantamount to increase in available energy from our point of view! Therefore we discover that what we call a *living cell* comes into being when the purely material structural unit is connected to and governed by a *control unit* built of the structures of the inverse Sector. This control unit, of course, appears non-local. The *Mahatmas* assert:

“…life as

lifeis… transformable into other aspects or phases of the all-pervading Force… Spirit, life and matter, are not natural principles existing independently of each other, but the effects of combinations produced by eternal motion in Space…”^{11}

“…try and examine…life apart from organism, and what remains of it? Simply a mode of motion…”

^{12}

Summarizing, we can say that the present view is that the phenomena of the physical universe *exist in* a framework of space and time. In contrast, the new paradigm asserts that scalar motion or speed, i.e. space/time, is the *content* of the physical universe—the sole content. Then we discover that there are several speed (motion) domains of the physical universe which cannot legitimately be represented in the conventional three-dimensional spatial reference frame.

In all the cases where theory is encountering serious difficulties, the trouble arises because of the Procrustean attempts to fit all physical processes into the limited three-dimensional spatial frame. The Reciprocal System shows that there is a conjugate sector of the universe, *the inverse Sector,* which can only be represented in the analogous three-dimensional *temporal *reference frame. Most of the mysterious astronomical phenomena that have no proper explanation in the conventional theory turn out to be the normal inverse Sector phenomena as they appear to us. High energy Cosmic Rays, Cosmic Microwave Background and Gamma Ray Bursts are typical examples.

We also find that some of the inverse Sector processes have wider implications and are relevant to the Life Sciences.

All the bizarre aspects of the quantum phenomena follow logically from the discrete nature of space and time. Further, the system of theory based on the Universal Motion offers a rational and understandable picture of the Reality underlying the quantum phenomena, which the Quantum Theory fails to provide.

## References

- Blavatsky H.P.,
*The Secret Doctrine,*TPH, Madras, India, 1978-9, Vol. II, p. 158 *Ibid.,*Vol. II, p.612- Barker A.T. (compiler),
*The Mahatma Letters to A.P. Sinnett,*TPH, Madras, India, 1979, p. 341 *The Secret Doctrine, op. cit.,*Vol. I, p. 2*The Mahatma Letters to A.P. Sinnett, op. cit.,*p. 135- More information on the
*Reciprocal System of theory*is available at https://reciprocalsystem.org *The Secret Doctrine, op. cit.,*Vol. I, p. 147*The Mahatma Letters to A.P. Sinnett, op. cit.,*p. 137*The Secret Doctrine, op. cit.,*Vol. I, p. 604*The Mahatma Letters to A.P. Sinnett, op. cit.,*p. 160*Ibid.,*p.156*Ibid.,*p.155