Papers by Ronald Satz

• A NEW DERIVATION OF PLANCK’S CONSTANT

To present-day physical science the numerical value of Planck’s constant is a mystery: quantum mechanica does not have a theoretical method for its calculation. By contrast the Reciprocal System of theory derives the value of all physical constants, including Planck’s constant, from its fundamental postulates. However, because of errors in the previous derivations, this paper presents a new, dimensionally sound method for the calculation.

• A Note on Scalar Motion

Beginning students of the Reciprocal System often have difficulty understanding scalar motion, confusing it with vectorial motion. I will attempt here to clarify matters.

• A NOTE ON THE COSMIC PROTON

The rotational displacements of the material proton (a single rotating system of a 2R photon) are 2-1-(1); the rotational displacements of the cosmic proton (a single rotating system of a ½ R photon) are (2)-(1)-1. Both protons can take a positive or negative charge (because both have the necessary space and time displacements).

• A NOTE ON THE FORCE OF THE SPACE-TIME PROGRESSION

In a previous paper of mine¹ I discussed Hubble’s Law and the Reciprocal System.   I integrated Hubble’s equation to obtain the following equation representing the distance of a galaxy from our galaxy as a function of time:

• A PROPOSAL FOR A CRUCIAL EXPERIMENT

Rutherford’s nuclear theory of the atom has held sway in the scientific community for 70 years.  I now propose a test which may disprove it.

• A TALL TALE: A Review of Stephen W. Hawking’s A Brief History of Time

This paper will critique the conventional physical theory espoused by Stephen Hawking (hereafter abbreviated to SH) in his best-selling book. From the perspective of the Reciprocal System (hereafter abbreviated to RS), the book is full of errors on practically every page. Still I urge members of ISUS to read it-SH does a good job of presenting the “establishments” viewpoint and its worth pondering his thinking.

• CALCULATION OF THE DISSOCIATION ENERGY OF DIATOMIC MOLECULES

This paper presents the first rational calculation of the dissociation energy of diatomic molecules.  Quantum mechanics does not have such a calculation, even in principle.  The importance of this calculation is that it provides additional quantitative verification of the molecular force and energy concepts of the Reciprocal System.

Dissociation energy is the change in energy (usually expressed in kcal per mole) at absolute zero temperature in the ideal gas state for the reaction

• CLOCK SPACE, COORDINATE SPACE; CLOCK TIME, COORDINATE TIME: What is the difference?

At last year‘s ISUS convention, a number of individuals expressed difficulty in comprehending the difference between clock space and coordinate space and the difference between clock time and coordinate time. This note will review these concepts to aid the understanding of these individuals.

• COSMIC RAYS AND ELEMENTARY PARTICLES: A View of the Reciprocal System

Introduction

• DISCUSSION OF LARSON’S GRAVITATIONAL EQUATION

As brought out at the recent convention, some confusion has arisen over Larson’s gravitational equation, eq. (2) of the original edition of the Structure of the Physical Universe:

 F = mm‘/s² (1)

The correct expanded version of this equation is

• FOUR SCIENTIFIC MYSTERIES UNRAVELLED

I. Quarks

“Quarks are fantastic jive” :
James Joyce might have said if alive.
“We started with three
For atomic debris,
And now we find we have five.”

(F. A. Moen)

• FURTHER MATHEMATICS OF THE RECIPROCAL SYSTEM

This paper will present in the most concrete, explicit manner the mathematics of space–time, radiation, and matter of the Reciprocal System.  Readers without special knowledge of the Reciprocal System are first urged to study Larson’s books, especially Nothing But Motion¹ before undertaking the study of this paper.

I.  Mathematics of Space–Time

A.   Rectangular Coordinates

• GLOBULAR CLUSTER MECHANICS IN THE RECIPROCAL SYSTEM

This paper discusses the forces on stars in a globular cluster. Consider Figure 1; the symbols are defined as follows:

Mg = mass of the stars of a globular ciuster Internal to g that of a particular star

m = mass of that particular star

mp = mass of the nearest neigboring stars

xg = distance of the star from the mass center of the globular g cluster

xp = distance of the star from the mass center of the nearest neighboring stars

• HUBBLE’S LAW AND THE RECIPROCAL SYSTEM

The conceptual basis for Hubble’s Law in the Reciprocal System has been discussed by Mr. Larson in a number of his works. This paper will present some additional mathematical details.

Hubble’s Law is commonly written as

• IDENTIFICATION OF COSMIC PARTICLES 3695 MeV/C² AND MeV/C²

In November, 1974, two teams, one at the Brookhaven National Laboratory and the other at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, announced the discovery of a new particle with a mass equivalent to 3,105 MeV/c² of energy. The lifetime of this particle is about 10-20 second, considered by some to be a remarkably long lifetime for a particle of this heavy mass. This particle is named with the Greek letter, psi, and is referred to as a psi resonance.

• ON THE NATURE OF UNDISPLACED SPACE-TIME

Question:    With respect to what is space-time moving? If there is not something more fundamental than space-time with respect to which space-time, itself, is moving, then space-time cannot properly be said to move (or progress) at all.

• PERMITTIVITY, PERMEABILITY AND THE SPEED OF LIGHT IN THE RECIPROCAL SYSTEM

Introduction

• PHOTOIONIZATION AND PHOTOMAGNETIZATION

Introduction: the Reciprocal System vs. Present Theory

• REFERENCE SYSTEMS AND SPEED LIMITS IN THE RECIPROCAL SYSTEM: A REVIEW

Current theoretical physics views time as one-dimensional and constituting a kind of quasispace which joins with the three dimensions of space to form a four-dimensional space-time framework, within which physical objects move one-dimensionally. This view has been formulated to help explain some of the new phenomena discovered in the twentieth century, such as the very small, the very large, and the very fast.

• STELLAR ENERGY GENERATION IN THE RECIPROCAL SYSTEM

The theory of stellar energy generation in the Reciprocal System is stated qualitatively in various works by Mr. Larson, such as Quasars and Pulsars. For the benefit of new readers of Reciprocity, I quote Mr. Larson in full:

• THE COHESIVE ENERGY OF THE ELEMENTS AT ZERO TEMPERATURE AND ZERO EXTERNAL PRESSURE

The equation for the internal energy of a substance is

 u = h - pv (1)

where h is enthalpy, p is pressure, and v is volwne. At zero absolute temperature, the enthalpy is zero.

• THE EQUATION OF STATE OF SOLID MATTER

For many years scientists and engineers have had available an excellent equation of state for gaseous matter. Now, at last, the Reciprocal System of Dewey B. Larson is able to give us an exact equation of state for solid matter. This paper will present a unified treatment of the subject, with Reference 1 as the starting point.

I. Volume of Solid as a Function of Temperature with Pressure Constant

• THE GRAVITATIONAL ATTRACTION OF THE GALAXY

In a previous paper1 I worked out the general form of Newton’s Law of Gravitation and applied it to the special case of a planet orbiting the sun. In this case Newton’s Law was modified by the factor

 1/(1 - v²/c²) �

For the case of an object moving directly toward another object rather than orbiting, the genetal equation reduces to Newton’s Law multiplied by the factor

• THE INTERACTION OF ALPHA PARTICLES AND GOLDS ATOMS: A New Explanation of Rutherford Scattering

Introduction

Nearly all present-day physicists are convinced of the truth of the assertion in the following quotation from Weidner and Sells’ Elementary Modern Physics(1):

It was by the alphaparticle scattering experiments, suggested by Rutherford, that the existence of atomic nuclei was established.

• THE LIQUID STATE IN THE RECIPROCAL SYSTEM: THE VOLUME/PRESSURE RELATION, A CONTEMPORARY MATHEMATICAL TREATMENT, PART II

From thermodynamics,¹ the general equation of state of a pure substance is

$$\frac{\mathrm{d}V}{V}=\beta\mathrm{d}T-\kappa\mathrm{d}P\qquad(1)$$

where

$$\beta=\frac{1}{V}\left(\frac{\partial V}{\partial T}\right)_P=\ volume\ expansivity\qquad(2)$$

and

• THE LIQUID STATE IN THE RECIPROCAL SYSTEM: THE VOLUME/TEMPERATURE RELATION, A CONTEMPORARY MATHEMATICAL TREATMENT, PART I

This paper provides a step-by-step procedure for the calculation of liquid specific volume as a function of composition and temperature, based on the Reciprocal System of D. B. Larson1.  In this theory, each individual molecule may be in the solid, liquid, or gaseous (or vapor) state, regardless of the state of the majority of molecules of the substance.

First let's define some terms:

• THE LORENTZ TRANSFORMATION

Question: Please provide a detailed rationale of how the RS theory produces the correct answer to this “Lorentz transform” problem:

M
L <———|———> R

• THEORY OF ELECTRONS AND CURRENTS

This paper will present the Reciprocal System theory of electrons and currents and compare it with the conventional theory

1. The Electron

• THE TWO-PHOTON PROBLEM

Question: How can two photons from separate sources meet if their space-time locations are moving away from each other with the space-time progression?

• THE UNIT OF MAGNETIC CHARGE

In terms of the egs system, the unit of electron charge (and quantity) is calculated by multiplying the Faraday constant by the mass equivalent of unit atomic weight:

2.89366x1014 esu/g-equiv * 1.65979x10-24 g = 4.80287x10-10 esu

(ref. ). Of course, 4.80287x10-10 esu is equal to 1.602062x10-19 coulombs.

• TIME REGION PARTICLE DYNAMICS

Mr. Larson has worked. out the static relations between particles in the time region; specifically, he has calculated the equilibrium interatomic distances for all the elements and many compounds (see pages 27-49 of The Structure of the Physlcal Universe). This paper will explore he dynamic relations between particles in the time region.

• WHITE LIES ABOUT BLACK HOLES

Kip Thorne introduces his article on black holes in Scientific American by stating:

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