Papers for Author

  • A Challenge to Project Omicron

    Project Omicron has a number of members that are also members of the International Society of Unified Science (ISUS), studying Dewey B. Larson’s Reciprocal System of theory.

  • A Crucial Test of Pulsar Theory

    A Crucial Test of Pulsar Theory

    Robert Tucek

    Conventional Theory

    pul-sar (pul'sär)n. A rotating neutron star, a source of regularly pulsing radio waves. [pulse + quasar]1

    pulsar: A rapidly rotating neutron star whose high-energy flashes of radiation sweep out into space; the energy is intercepted by terrestrial observers at regular intervals or pulses.2


    To present-day physical science the numerical value of Planck’s constant is a mystery: quantum mechanica does not have a theoretical method for its calculation. By contrast the Reciprocal System of theory derives the value of all physical constants, including Planck’s constant, from its fundamental postulates. However, because of errors in the previous derivations, this paper presents a new, dimensionally sound method for the calculation.


    The rotational displacements of the material proton (a single rotating system of a 2R photon) are 2-1-(1); the rotational displacements of the cosmic proton (a single rotating system of a ½ R photon) are (2)-(1)-1. Both protons can take a positive or negative charge (because both have the necessary space and time displacements).


    In a previous paper of mine¹ I discussed Hubble’s Law and the Reciprocal System.   I integrated Hubble’s equation to obtain the following equation representing the distance of a galaxy from our galaxy as a function of time:

  • A New Theory of Gravitation (PDF)

    A discussion of gravity as a 3-dimensional, inward, scalar motion.

  • A Note on Metaphysics

    Some of the readers of my latest book, The Neglected Facts of Science, are apparently interpreting the conclusions of this work as indicating that the Reciprocal System of theory leads to a strict mechanistic view of the universe, in which there is no room for religious or other non-material elements. This is not correct.

  • A Note on Scalar Motion

    Beginning students of the Reciprocal System often have difficulty understanding scalar motion, confusing it with vectorial motion. I will attempt here to clarify matters.


    Rutherford’s nuclear theory of the atom has held sway in the scientific community for 70 years.  I now propose a test which may disprove it.

  • A Quasar in the Making?
    The Hubble Space Telescope imaged an 800-light-year-wide spiral-shaped disk of dust fueling a supposed "massive black hole" in the center of galaxy NGC 4261 in Virgo. Press release STScI-PRC95-47a indicates, "By measuring the speed of gas swirling around the black hole, astronomers calculate that the object at the center of the disk is 1.2 billion times the mass of our Sun, yet concentrated into a region of space not much larger than our solar system. Hubble also reveals that the disk and black hole are offset from the center of NGC 4261, implying some sort of dynamical interaction is taking place, that has yet to be fully explained."
  • A Rejoinder to K.V.K. Nehru

    In a letter published in the May 1975 issue of Reciprocity I stated that I preferred not to comment on articles submitted for publication because “I believe that it is very desirable to encourage free and open discussion of the (Reciprocal) theory and its applications, so that we can have the benefit of as many points of view as possible in extending and clarifying the theoretical structure.

  • A Star is Just a Big Lump of Matter

    (Promotion for The Universe of Motion)

  • A TALL TALE: A Review of Stephen W. Hawking’s A Brief History of Time

    This paper will critique the conventional physical theory espoused by Stephen Hawking (hereafter abbreviated to SH) in his best-selling book. From the perspective of the Reciprocal System (hereafter abbreviated to RS), the book is full of errors on practically every page. Still I urge members of ISUS to read it-SH does a good job of presenting the “establishments” viewpoint and its worth pondering his thinking.

  • Absolute Magnitudes of Physics (PDF)

    A universe of motion compotes the physical universe, in which motion is a reciprocal relation between space and time. All motion consists of discrete units. Each individual unit of motion is a relation between one unit of space and one unit of time, a motion at unit speed. This unit speed and its constituents, clock time and clock space, are absolute magnitudes. Unit speed is identified with the speed of the physical locations of photon. Absolute magnitudes do not exclude relative magnitudes, such as material speed, coordinate space and coordinate time.

  • After 3000 Years (PDF)

    The most significant feature of this new development is that it is a general physical theory, one in which the basic laws and principles of all physical fields are derived from a single set of fundamental postulates, without making any further assumptions of any kind, and without introducing anything from any outside source. Construction of such a theory has been a major goal of science for three thousand years, and an immense amount of time and effort has been devoted to the task. But until now, all of these efforts have been totally unsuccessful.

  • An Excursion to the ISUS Archive


    After the demise of Dewey Bernard Larson, the creator of the Reciprocal System of theory, the first truly General Theory of physics, all his Manuscripts were transshipped to the headquarters of the ISUS at Salt Lake City, Utah, for safe-keeping.

  • Another Look at the Pulsar Phenomenon (PDF)
    Astronomers have recognized in the pulsars, the extremely compact pulsating stellar objects, opportunities to test the correctness of the predictions of different theories of gravitation. Prof. KVK Nehru does so here, with the Reciprocal System.
  • Are Motion and Space-Time Identical and Quantized?

    An essay presented to the Spring, 1997 meeting of the Minnesota Area Association of Physics Teachers
    on the St. Paul Campus of the University of Minnesota.

  • Around Unexpected Corners (PDF)
    About twenty years ago Dr. James B. Conant, at that time president of Harvard University, gave a talk to a group of chemists and chemical executives in which he expressed serious concern over the effect on scientific progress that was likely to result from the virtual disappearance of what he called the “uncommitted investigators,” a term which he applied to those individuals who carry on scientific research work on their own initiative, without support from or direction by the established research agencies. As Dr. Conant put it, these individuals “could investigate what they pleased when they pleased, or break off research at any point. They were as free as the wind because they had no program except the ever-changing one in their own minds.”
  • Association of Quasars with Other Astronomical Objects (PDF)

    Larson discusses the association of quasars with other astronomical objects, indicating a common origin.

  • Astronomical X-ray Sources (PDF)
    An analysis of astronomical X-ray sources, what objects are emitting them, why they are and how they are.
  • At the Earth's Core: The Geophysics of Planetary Evolution (PDF)
    A reevaluation of the formation and internal structure of planets, based on one component of a binary star system going supernova, destroying the partner star, which is shattered into planets.
  • Atomic Number Equation Based on Larson's Triplets (PDF)

    How to calculate the atomic number by a simple equation from Larson's A-B-C notation.

  • Benjamin Franklin's Concept of Time (PDF)

    I wish to report why I consider Benjamin Franklin’s animate concept of time a better concept than the clock concept of time presently accepted by many modem physicists.

  • Birotation and the Doubts of Thomas (PDF)
    Commentary regarding Thomas Kirk's objections to Nehru's birotating photon model.

    This paper presents the first rational calculation of the dissociation energy of diatomic molecules.  Quantum mechanics does not have such a calculation, even in principle.  The importance of this calculation is that it provides additional quantitative verification of the molecular force and energy concepts of the Reciprocal System.

    Dissociation energy is the change in energy (usually expressed in kcal per mole) at absolute zero temperature in the ideal gas state for the reaction


    At last year‘s ISUS convention, a number of individuals expressed difficulty in comprehending the difference between clock space and coordinate space and the difference between clock time and coordinate time. This note will review these concepts to aid the understanding of these individuals.

  • COSMIC RAYS AND ELEMENTARY PARTICLES: A View of the Reciprocal System


  • Calculus and Geometry (PDF)

    An examination of the relationship of calculus to geometry in the context of the Reciprocal System.

  • Celestial Dynamics and Rotational Forces In Circular and Elliptical Motions (PDF)

    The understanding of circular motion as being conditioned by a central force coupled to a tangential velocity is questioned, by analyzing the origins of its derivation, and revising it in the light of rotational kinematics. It is shown that one cannot stop the analysis at a force directed to the center, but has to continue it to include an infinite series of higher order rotational forces in four perpendicular directions. The verification of this in terrestrial dynamics, as well as the consequences of its application in celestial dynamics is presented.

  • Changing Concepts of the Nature of Motion

    When the theory of the universe of motion, the Reciprocal System of theory as we are calling it, was first being introduced to the scientific community in books and lectures, about twenty-five years ago, one of the principal obstacles with which we had to contend was the generally accepted concept of the nature of motion, in which motion is regarded as a continuous change in the position of some “thing” in a three-dimensional space that acts as a background or container. In the Reciprocal System of theory, motion is defined simply as a relation between space and time, which means that “things” do not participate in the simplest types of motion. For those who were not willing to entertain the possibility that their basic concept of the nature of motion might be wrong, this closed the door to any consideration of the new theory, in spite of the outstanding successes of that theory in dealing with the most recalcitrant and long-standing problems of physical science.

  • Charge Field and the Reciprocal System (PDF)

    This paper serves to compare the different approaches to a general theory of physics that has been attempted independently by two researchers, Dewey Larson (Reciprocal System) and Miles Mathis (Charge Field Theory) in order to show the overlapping concepts side by side. It is not intended to do what is traditionally done in science (establishing and fighting over priority) but to show how very similar ideas can be reached by anyone who takes an honest look at current scientific data.

  • Che Sara Sara (PDF)

    As a result of my recent rereading of various sections of the texts on the Reciprocal System of Theory, with a view to making an attempt to find a simple approach to teach the theory to newly interested “students,” I came across, what appears to me to be, thirteen assumptions, listed below in the form either as a stated assumption or as a question re explicit or implicit assumptions uncovered.

  • Cold Fusion

    Beginning with Larson's atomic structure model,

    The Deuterium atom: 2-1-(1)

    An object one unit short of the more stable state of the inert gas, helium, 2-1-0. Deuterium is somewhat unstable just in its own right, as hydrogen much prefers the mass one state in nature. Deuterium is relatively rare.

    The Lithium atom: 2-1-1

  • Comments on BPOM, UOM and Outline (PDF)
    Some questions Nehru poses to Larson, concerning the books, "Basic Properties of Matter," "Universe of Motion," and the paper, "The Outline of the Deductive Development of a Universe of Motion."
  • Comments on Some Issues Raised at the 1978 Conference

    It is not possible in the short time that is available in the conference sessions, to give full consideration to all of the issues that are brought up, and most of the discussions were elaborated to a considerable extent in informal conversations outside the regular sessions. A few comments on some of the more important points may be of interest to those that did not happen to be present when these particular issues were discussed.

    Energy at high speeds:

  • Consciousness, Motion, Space and Time (PDF)
    The fact that we do not have a single theory, but only a collection of individual theories, goes to show that the basic concepts of these individual theories are not right. Therefore attempts to understand the occult truths from the points of view of these concepts—which are only provisional working hypotheses—cannot lead us to Truth but only speculations unlimited. The emergence of the first truly general theory, namely, the Reciprocal System of Theory created by Dewey B. Larson should be of immense interest to all the seekers of Truth. The conclusions of the Reciprocal System are factually verified in all the domains of physics and astronomy. It must be noted that there cannot be more than one correct general theory.
  • Critical Universality

    Now to a very important matter for us all to give serious consideration to. I am quoting from a letter, that a disenchanted member of ISUS once wrote to me, and I shall follow it with my own ‘start of an approach’, in the almost vain hope that I may stimulate a reader with some knowledge on Critical points, and Curie temperature, to add to it.

  • Crossing the Quantum Boundary: A Phenomenon of the Astral Plane?


    In this short article the author makes the case that Dewey Larson's assertion of space and time as fundamentally quantized is an equal contribution to his much better known "motion as the sole constituent of the physical universe." In addition, the phenomena of boundary crossing, required by all quantum concepts, is shown to be a process of much under-appreciated complexity and importance. Finally the author speculates that crossing the quantum boundary may be a phenomena of the "Astral Plane."


    As brought out at the recent convention, some confusion has arisen over Larson’s gravitational equation, eq. (2) of the original edition of the Structure of the Physical Universe:

    F = mm‘/s²

    The correct expanded version of this equation is

  • Dewey Larson and The Way of One

    Dewey Larson and The Way of One

    Stephen Tyman

    Presented by Carla Rueckert McCarty of L/L Research

  • Dialogue II (PDF)
    More questions and answers between KVK Nehru and Dewey Larson, concerning the books "Nothing But Motion" and "Quasars and Pulsars."
  • Dialogue with Dewey B. Larson, Part I
    Dialog between KVK Nehru and Dewey Larson, concerning comments on D. B. Larson’s Nothing But Motion (NBM) and New Light on Space and Time (NLST) interspersed with responses by the author. The correspondence from which this dialogue is excerpted took place c. 1980.
  • Dimensions in the Universe of Motion

    In my publications I have followed a general policy of not duplicating material that is readily available in the textbooks, in order to conserve space for the new ideas that I am presenting. I therefore do not define terms that are in general use, commenting on the usage only where I have introduced some new concept, or have modified the meaning of a term. There was some confusion about my usage of the term “direction” originally, and I had occasion to discuss this matter in some of my publications. (See, for instance, Nothing But Motion, p.

  • Diodes and Transistors in the RS (PDF)

    Diodes and transistors form the basics of all technology today, and it is important to see how they really function, with the aid of the Reciprocal System. The basic constituents of these devices are semiconductors. It has already been described in an earlier paper [1] that semiconductors are substances containing elements with neutral valence and a capacity to convert the normally 1D electron motion to a 2D motion, as a phase transition (such as solid to liquid).

  • Discussion on Kirk's Explanation of Photon

    This is a very interesting article by Thomas Kirk. He evinces good understanding of the nature of scalar motion. The article would have been excellent but for few points needing further clarification. Presuming that the article had been reviewed, one feels that the reviewer ought to have raised these points.
    (Denoting page no. by ’p’, left and right columns by ’lc’ and ’rc’, para no. by ’pr’ and line no. by 'l')

  • Discussion on Satz's Derivation of Planck's Constant (PDF)

    (1) The ability to move away from established patterns of thinking and strike a new avenue of approach is a rare characteristic but most desirable for research. In his paper, “A New Derivation of Planck's Constant,”1 Satz comes up with such a fresh approach. He suggests that “frequency in the natural sense is the number of cycles per space-time unit.” This is at variance with Larson’s view that “…the so-called ‘frequency’ is actually a speed.

  • Dissecting the Birotating Photon (PDF)

    Kirk's comments on Nehru's concept of a birotating photon. Replied to by Nehru in "Birotation and the Doubts of Thomas."

  • Distribution of the Masses of Protostars in Globular Clusters (PDF)

    A technical analysis of the formation of globular clusters, that utilizes just gravity and the progression of the natural reference system to form stars and clusters. Discussed are the mass limits for stellar combustion, as well as radial separations.

  • Dr. Arnold Studtmann Has Been Found

    Our ISUS, Inc. Associate Editor, Bruce M. Peret, is a most enterprising operator. As many of you know, we have been searching for our lost colleague and friend, Arnold Studtmann, for a number of years with no success. Bruce, who with his Amiga on-line computer, has been aiming to update and clarify our Membership and Subscriber lists, has an alert, intuitive intelligence of how, when and where to turn up sought for, hard-to-find information.

  • Dreams, Symbolism and Allegory (PDF)
    An analysis of dreams, symbolism and allegory as expressions of the life unit concept documented in Beyond Space and Time.
  • Earth Satellite

    I suggest that there could be a ‘crucial experiment’ to investigate, due to some information I came across a few years ago, about 1992.

  • Electric Ionization (PDF)
    Nehru corrects some failings in Satz's papers, "Further Mathematics of the Reciprocal System" and "Photoionization and Photomagnetization," concerning the calculation of ionization of the elements.
  • Electrogravitics Research
    The first requirement for a detailed analysis of electrogravitics is a conceptual understanding of the nature of gravitation. Several theories are available for scrutiny, including curved space, gravitational fields, ether vortexes, gravitons, and scalar motion. To understand the theory, it is necessary to understand the conditions under which the theory was derived. These usually appear in the form of postulates or initial conditions; which are nothing more than assumptions on the observed behavior of the universe put into a specific context.
  • Energies at High Speeds (PDF)

    An explanation of why acceleration decreases, rather than mass increasing, as objects approach the speed of light.

  • Eternal, Ceaseless Motion, the New Paradigm of Science
    From Newton’s second Law we know that when a force F acts on a mass m, the acceleration (rate of change of speed) a, produced is given by a = F/m. However, experiments conducted on electrically accelerated particles showed, quite conclusively, that at very high speeds this is not the case. The magnitude of the acceleration produced by the same force gradually tapers off in a manner that it tends toward zero as the particle speed approaches the speed of light. So much so, Einstein had shown that no material particle could ever be accelerated to this limiting speed. Since then it has become an accepted dogma in all the physical fields. Even in situations where the empirical evidence clearly indicated existence of faster than light speeds—like in some quasar redshifts—the scientists simply denied the facts, because of their unquestioned servitude to Einstein’s ideas. This, of course, has had the disastrous result of stumping the development of physical theory.
  • Evolving Views of Space and Time

    Modern physics continues to view space as a container in which the material universe is constructed, and time merely as an 'inconvenience', being no more than a linear measurement of change, and not considered to be part of the constructs of space.

    The Reciprocal System altered this view by making space and time aspects of motion, and motion as both the container, and containee, of the constructs of the universe.

  • Extra-Dimensional & Extra-Terrestrial Entities (PDF)

    An analysis of the concept of an extra-dimensional entity, showing how dimension and density relate in the structure of the life unit. Also a discussion of extraterrestrial contact, and the problems the human psyche may encounter.

  • Extraterrestrial Albino Brain Chiggers (PDF)

    Has the mind of man been invaded by extraterrestrial microorganisms that are consuming his intelligence, returning him to the status of good slaves to the gods? Is the dumbing-down of humanity an accident, or an invasion of albino brain chiggers? The answer may not be as ridiculous as it sounds.... there are some interesting correlations.


    I. Quarks

    “Quarks are fantastic jive” :
    James Joyce might have said if alive.
    “We started with three
    For atomic debris,
    And now we find we have five.”

                                                (F. A. Moen)


    This paper will present in the most concrete, explicit manner the mathematics of space–time, radiation, and matter of the Reciprocal System.  Readers without special knowledge of the Reciprocal System are first urged to study Larson’s books, especially Nothing But Motion¹ before undertaking the study of this paper.

    I.  Mathematics of Space–Time

    A.   Rectangular Coordinates

  • Four Types of Magnetism and Critical Universality (PDF)

    A discussion magnetism and the and the Liquid-Vapor criticality point.

  • Future Purposes of ISUS, Inc.

    D.B. Larson accomplished two great discoveries before he died. He has clearly shown that, just as Newtonian theory was mistaken when postulating that space and time are unrelated, so modern physics has mistakenly overlooked that space-time is not continuous, as postulated by relativity physics and not inert or stationary, as postulated by both relativity and quantum physicists. Larson's revalued physics, his general reciprocal system of physics, teaches that space-time is identical with motion and quantized.


    This paper discusses the forces on stars in a globular cluster. Consider Figure 1; the symbols are defined as follows:

    Mg = mass of the stars of a globular ciuster Internal to g that of a particular star

    m = mass of that particular star

    mp = mass of the nearest neigboring stars

    xg = distance of the star from the mass center of the globular g cluster

    xp = distance of the star from the mass center of the nearest neighboring stars

  • Geochronology: Hiding History in the Past (PDF)
    Part 1 of the Anthropology Series on the Hidden Origins of Homo Sapiens. Radioactive decay and stellar generations are used to do a reevaluation of geochronology, how we date ancient history. Natural consequences of this reevaluation bring science in line with religious and mythological dating, and give quite a different perspective on the origins of mankind.
  • Geoengineering, Chemtrails, HAARP, World Orders, Time Lines and Ascension (PDF)

    An analysis of the current geoengineering of Earth, including chemtrails, the upcoming solar transition, solar radio and x-ray emission, timelines and superstorms.

  • Glimpses Into the Structure of the Sun (PDF)
    An analysis of sunspots as a manifestation of motion in the intermediate and ultra-high speed temperature ranges, generating comagnetic effects.
  • Glimpses into a New Paradigm
    The objective of this article is to introduce to the physical theory being called The Reciprocal System. Its originator, Dewey Larson, starting from two Postulates as regarding the nature of the basic constituents of the physical universe, and the mathematics applicable thereto builds a cogent theoretical structure that lays claim to a general theory. As it is impossible to outline the whole theory in the short space of an article, attempt has been made to present only those salient features that do not require lengthy explanation and have a broad-enough scope to enable the interested reader to appreciate its potentialities. More esoteric features of the Theory have been intentionally omitted from this preliminary treatment. They are, of course, available in the published works of Larson.
  • Gothean Science and the Reciprocal System (PDF)

    The concepts used in the Reciprocal System can be traced back in many ways. One direct line is from phenomenology of Goethe, where he stresses the importance of sticking to the phenomena without any theorizing. This principle-based approach further elaborated by Rudolf Steiner is essentially what the Reciprocal System has independently extended further.

  • Gravitation and the Galaxies (PDF)

    A look at how gravity affects galaxies.

  • Gravitational Deflection of a Light Beam (PDF)

    Calculations of the gravitational deflection of a light beam, due to coordinate time.

  • Gravitational Redshift (PDF)

    A n RS computation of the gravitational red shift, compared to the Relativity version.


    The conceptual basis for Hubble’s Law in the Reciprocal System has been discussed by Mr. Larson in a number of his works. This paper will present some additional mathematical details.

    Hubble’s Law is commonly written as

  • Here is the Proof: Association of Quasars with Other Astronomical Objects

    Here in this diagram, reproduced from D. B. Larson’s book Quasars and Pulsars, is the evidence that confirms the reality of Halton Arp’s “associations” of quasars with other astronomical objects, and thereby not only provides a conclusive answer to the hotly debated question as to where the quasars are located, but also opens the door to a solution of the whole “quasar mystery”.

  • High Energy Physics and the Reciprocal System (PDF)

    Great advances in technology in the recent decades of this century have made it possible to amass a wealth of experimental data of unprecedented scope and variety. Theory in the areas of Particle Physics and Astrophysics has been subjected to repeated revisions to cope up with the observed facts. Especially in the field of High Energy Physics exciting things have been happening. The Orthodoxy is becoming more tolerant to wild, if not crazy ideas and inventions of thought.

  • Homo Sapiens Ethicus (PDF)

    Part 3 of the Anthropology Series on the Hidden Origin of Homo Sapiens. A detailed discussion of bioenergy and its association with the processes of life, death, reincarnation and ascension, using Larson's Sector 3, "ethical level," as a model.

  • How Do We Meet the New Age Ushered by the Reciprocal System (PDF)

    Another response from the suppression of the information on birotation by Satz, discussing how you CAN have rotation without anything to rotate, once you understand the concept.

  • Hubble Finds Intergalactic Stars
    Astronomers incorrectly identify "stellar outcast" (inter-galactic stars) as being "tossed out" from galaxies, whereas the Reciprocal System identifies them as just newly forming stars.

    In November, 1974, two teams, one at the Brookhaven National Laboratory and the other at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, announced the discovery of a new particle with a mass equivalent to 3,105 MeV/c² of energy. The lifetime of this particle is about 10-20 second, considered by some to be a remarkably long lifetime for a particle of this heavy mass. This particle is named with the Greek letter, psi, and is referred to as a psi resonance.

  • Infinitude of the Private Person--The Case for the Equality of Human Worth

    The Third, non-physical sector of Human Existence, discovered by Dewey Larson1, enables us to distinguish between a physical and a non-physical world of human worth.

    Your physical worth, like your performance and your longevity, is finite. This is your market worth, which exists only in relation to the global market, a finite whole of nothing but a diversity of commodity values.

  • Internal Ionization and Secondary Mass (PDF)

    A look at the influences that rotational vibration has on the concepts of mass and charge, and the interregional ratios applicable thereto.

  • Intrinsic Variables, Supernovae and the Thermal Limit (PDF)

    Analysis of how the thermal limit of atoms, applied to the large aggregate of stars, produces intrinsic variables and supernova.

  • Intrinsicality (PDF)

    A discussion of the intrinsic assumptions made b y other theories, and their implications on trying to understand the Reciprocal System.

  • Ionization Levels in the Reciprocal System (PDF)

    Calculations of ionization levels for the elements.

  • Is Ferromagnetism a Co-magnetic Phenomenon? (PDF)

    In the phenomenon of the ferromagnetism the material exhibits large spontaneous magnetization in the absence of any externally applied magnetic field, below a characteristic temperature called the Curie point. Relatively few elements are ferromagnetic.

  • Is Motion Prior to Matter?

    Frank Meyer raises the question of "motion prior to matter" in this article [Solid Cohesion and the Expanding Universe, Reciprocity XVI, #3, p. 13]. This concept is derived from the progression of the natural reference system?1 unit of space per 1 unit of time—the motion of "no-thing" which is assumed to exist prior to any displacement resulting in the formation of matter.

    The ratio of 1/1 equals 1, unity. "Unity," being composed of two aspects, is the ultimate oxymoron.

  • Is Relativity Conceptually Valid?

    To the editor of Reciprocity:

    I would like to call the attention of your readers to a series of letters in Nature initiated by a question raised by the prominent British scientist Herbert Dingle with respect to the special theory of relativity, and culminating in a communication from Professor Dingle published in the Aug. 31, 1973 issue of that journal.

  • Just How Much Do We Really Know?
    But it seems to me that our present theories, even the successful ones, are not yet constructed so completely in accord with sound principles, but that in this day and generation criticism is a most necessary and useful enterprise for the physicist.

    —P.W. Bridgman1

    Physical science stands today in a highly anomalous position. On the one hand, no branch of knowledge has ever occupied a higher place in general public esteem. The spectacular way in which the abstract ideas of the theoretical scientist and the discoveries of his colleagues in the laboratories have been applied to the fashioning of ingenious devices that have drastically changed the whole world picture has made a profound impression on the man in the street, and the word “scientific” has acquired an unparalleled prestige. To some degree, at least, these sentiments are shared by the rank and file of the professional scientists, and the confident words “We know…” continually echo and reecho through the halls of learning.

  • Just What Do We Claim?

    The task of presenting the case for a new svstem of thought is a difficult one at best, and in order that it may be successfully accomplished it is essential to confine the discussion to the specific points at issue, and to avoid being drawn into controversies regarding matters which, at least for the present, are irrelevant.

  • Kinetons in the Reciprocal System

    Kinetons in the Reciprocal System[1]

    by Jan Sammer

  • Language, Experience and Illusion
    One of the many obstacles that a serious student of spirituality has to face is language. One uses it not only for communication, but to organize one’s thinking, to direct reason and analyze nature. Sooner or later, he has to come to a clear and thorough understanding of how language distorts truth. As members of the human Brotherhood we are divided by thousands of languages. Not only man is alienated from man by language, but also more sinisterly, man is alienated from Reality by the language he uses. There are two functional levels in language: the lexical and the patternment. The lexical level is more directly concerned with meaning in expressing and communicating. There are plenty of traps in this. We would like to dwell, in this article, on the patternment level, which conditions us more deeply, through grammatical forms and other structural features.
  • Laws to Perception based on Notions of Motions (PDF)

    To date, current physics and its adherents have not shown any real depth of analysis into all the theoretically possible types of motion and their concomitant manifestations. So here begins a step-by-step investigation.

  • Life, the Universe and Digital Society (PDF)

    A discussion of communication, or lack thereof, in our modern, digital society.

  • Lifetime of C-Argon, the Muon (PDF)

    Calculation of the lifetime of the "antimatter" particle, cosmic argon.

  • Lifetimes of C-Atom Decays (PDF)

    Cosmic atom decay rates.

  • Magnetic Moments of Leptons (PDF)

    A comparison of the values of the magnetic moments of leptons derived from the Reciprocal System with the values in conventional Physics theories is presented here. Even though the magnetic moment is touted as one of the most accurate tests of modern quantum electrodynamics, it is normally not noticed that the conventional derivation involves several ad-hoc constants. In contrast, these values arise straightforwardly out of the principles of the Reciprocal system.

  • Motion (PDF)

    An overview of the concept of "motion," and how scalar motion differs from vectorial motion.

  • Motion Fundamentals (PDF)

    I was asked by the Editor to respond to comments by the editorial referee on my article, “Derivation of Reciprocal System Mathematics", and also to comment on K.V.K. Nehru’s article, “On the Nature of Rotation and Birotation.” I was surprised to find that the primary concerns from the referee and the most unusual assertions by Nehru extended from a very fundamental level of Reciprocal System development.

  • Motion and Space-time are Essentially Related and Quantized

    The essence of this doctrine was presented to the Fall Meeting of the Minnesota Area Association of Physics Teachers,
    October 25, 1997 in the Physics Building, Room 210, of the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis campus.

  • Multi-Dimensional Space-Time
    We have been working on a synthesis of the new discoveries relevant to Larson’s Beyond Space and Time. The following is a summary report of the development in thought so far. Recapitulating: space, time and speed (motion) are quantized. There are several speed (motion) regions of the physical universe which cannot be legitimately represented in the conventional three-dimensional spatial reference frame. In all the cases where legacy theory is encountering serious difficulties, the trouble arises because of the Procrustean attempts to fit all physical processes into the limited three-dimensional spatial frame. There is a conjugate Sector of the universe, the Cosmic Sector, which can only be represented in the analogous three-dimensional temporal reference frame. Most of the mysterious astronomical phenomena that have no proper explanation in the conventional theory turn out to be the normal Cosmic Sector phenomena as they appear to us. High-energy cosmic rays, cosmic microwave background and gamma ray bursts are typical examples.
  • New Light on the Gravitational Deflection of a Radiation Path (PDF)

    I have discussed in an earlier paper, “The Gravitational Deflection of Light Beam in the Reciprocal System,” the effect of gravitation on the bending of the locus of a photon. Even though the role played by the coordinate time associated with the gravitational motion in deflecting the path of light was correctly depicted therein, I believe that the mathematical implications were not correctly brought out. Especially, in the case of equation (6) there, though its existence was correctly recognized, its physical significance was misconstrued.

  • New World Religion (PDF)

    Part 2 of the anthropology series on the hidden origins of homo sapiens; a discussion of Project Blue Beam, and how the powers that be are using technology in an attempt to divert the course of spiritual development in mankind.

  • Non-Locality in the Reciprocal System (PDF)

    The Reciprocal System, true to its claim of a unified and general theory, not only covers the ground of the quantum theory, but also provides insight into the reality, basing on the new paradigm of motion as the sole constituent of the physical universe. Its most important finding is the existence of different domains of physical action, in which the rules of the game apparently differ. Larson resolves all the difficulties the conventional theory is facing, by the knowledge of the characteristics of these domains.


    Question:    With respect to what is space-time moving? If there is not something more fundamental than space-time with respect to which space-time, itself, is moving, then space-time cannot properly be said to move (or progress) at all.

  • On the Nature of Rotation and Birotation (PDF)

    A detailed description of the concept of birotation, and how it explains many of the concepts associated with the photon.

  • Original Form of Kepler's Third Law and its Misapplication in Propositions XXXII-XXXVII in Newton's Principia (Book I) (PDF)

    The original form of Kepler’s Third Law contains a caveat regarding the requirement of small eccentricities – a fact that has been missed by the traditional Newtonian derivations. This constraint is analyzed, and a re-clarification of the real meaning of “mean distance” in the law is provided, by following up the indications given by Kepler in the Harmonices Mundi. It is shown that the modified expression for the “mean distance” not only clears up conceptual difficulties, but also removes a discrepancy found by Kepler for Mercury.

  • Outline of the Deductive Development of the Theory of the Universe of Motion (PDF)
    A point-by-point outline of the development of motion in the Reciprocal System.



    Introduction: the Reciprocal System vs. Present Theory

  • Perhaps You Are Not Interested In Quasars?

    (Promotion for Quasars & Pulsars)

    But as a scientist, or a philosopher, you are vitally concerned with the foundations of science, and the task of providing an explanation of the quasars is the great test that the basic laws and theories of physical science are today being called upon to meet: a test in which they are failing badly. Indeed, they are so helpless in the face of this challenge that prominent astronomers are finding it necessary to call for a “radical revision” of existing ideas. Under these circumstances it is highly significant that there is an available system of physical theory that can meet this crucial test; one which can furnish a comprehensive and consistent explanation of the quasars and associated phenomena—galactic explosions, pulsars, white dwarf stars, the recession of the galaxies, and so on.

  • Periodicals Collection Master Index (PDF)

    An index by Volume, author and paper title of all of the periodicals that ISUS has produced (New Science Advocates, Reciprocity and ISUS News).

  • Precession of the Planetary Perihelia (PDF)

    An explanation, with calculations, of the precession of the planets due to the concept of 3D, coordinate time.

  • Preparing for the Reciprocal System (PDF)

    The purpose of this booklet is to take a look at the theory and its development by approaching the fundamental postulates in a slightly different manner than usually presented, for instance, as in Larson’s careful descriptions of the Outline of the Reciprocal System and Lawrence Denslow’s clarification of the Fundamentals of Scalar Motion. While efforts have so far been made to highlight the development of the theory from the postulates, it appears that a fresh effort, one that leads to the postulates by preparation, is necessary at this point of time.

  • Prepostero's Book
    The Reciprocal System of Theory, (RS), founded by Dewey Larson, has been extant for several decades and has been known by the cognoscenti to have the potential to explain all the events and existents of the physical universe. In addition to Larson’s own published findings and developments, there have been many more additions to the catalogue of achievements made by others without the need for assumptions; the fundamental postulates subsume all deductions needed to explain the physical universe.
  • Quantum Mechanics (PDF)

    While the Wave Mechanics has been very successful mathematically, it contains some fundamental errors. The principal stumbling block has been the ignorance of the existence of the Time Region and its peculiar characteristics.

  • Quasars--How Big Are They?

    To recipients of the review article QUASARS-THREE YEARS LATER:

  • Quasars--Three Years Later (PDF)

    This paper is a supplement to the book, Quasars and Pulsars, updating information contained therein.

  • Questions of Origins and Nature of Light and Matter

    This is a follow-up of my recent letter Prof. Frank Meyer, for further clarification of some ideas therein.

  • Questions of Origins and Nature of Light and Matter
    This is a follow-up of my recent letter Prof. Frank Meyer, for further clarification of some ideas therein.

    When a mathematician analyzes a three-dimensional motion, he usually ‘attaches’ a framework and then discusses the resolutes of the motion, each referred to the separate axes respectively. These resolutes are usually planar projections of a one-dimensional space curve, breaking it down into 3 one-dimensional plane curves.


    Current theoretical physics views time as one-dimensional and constituting a kind of quasispace which joins with the three dimensions of space to form a four-dimensional space-time framework, within which physical objects move one-dimensionally. This view has been formulated to help explain some of the new phenomena discovered in the twentieth century, such as the very small, the very large, and the very fast.

  • RS2-101: Creating a Theory (PDF)
    An introduction to the concept of frameworks; what occurs naturally and what man has created to express the natural framework in symbols.
  • RS2-102: Fundamental Postulates (PDF)
    The fundamental postulates of the Reciprocal System of theory and a detailed description of what they define and how they relate.
  • RS2-103: The Reevaluation (PDF)
    An overview of the goals of the RS2 reevaluation of Larson's Reciprocal System of theory, and the direction it is taking for future research.
  • RS2-104: Scalar Motion (PDF)
    And examination of what "scalar motion" is, in its pure form and how it applies to the Reciprocal System.
  • RS2-105: Quantum π (PDF)
    In Miles Mathis’ papers concerning π: “What is Pi?” and “The Extinction of Pi,” he cause considerable controversy with his conclusions that PI is an acceleration and has a value of 4.0, not the conventional 3.14159265… . As to what is correct, the answer in the Reciprocal System is “all of the above,” with the caveat that the values are reference system dependent.
  • RS2-106: Dimensions and Displacements (PDF)
    A description of the dimensions of motion (the scalar dimensions), how the units of motion relate to those dimensions, what the "clock" is and how displacements are derived from those dimensions to create physical structure.
  • RS2-107: Mass and Gravity (PDF)
    A discussion of the concepts of mass, weight and gravity in the Reciprocal System, as expressed by three dimensions of scalar motion.
  • RS2-108: The Lorentz Factor (PDF)
    An examination of what is going on underneath the Lorentz Factor equation, with a comparison to a similar concept originally proposed by Dewey Larson as a direction reversal and rotational base.
  • RS2-109: Dimensional Thinking (PDF)
    An examination of how dimensions are used in the Reciprocal System and how they interplay with Larson's concept of "units of motion." This is theoretical research that has gone beyond Larson's original concepts and into new areas, developed for use with a computer simulation of a universe of motion.
  • Radio Component Separation in Quasars (PDF)

    A calculation of the angular separation of radio components in quasars.

  • Reference Systems

    As reported in the October 1977 issue of Reciprocity, I am now in the process of preparing the first volume of a revised edition of the book in which I introduced the Reciprocal System of theory, The Structure of the Physical Universe, a book which has been out of print for several years. As the successive chapters of the manuscript are completed, I have been circulating them for review and comment by a number of those members of the New Science Advocates with whom I have corresponded on the subject matter.

  • Reflections of a New Member

    Within a minute or two after opening the book I knew it was exactly what I had been searching for. The wonderful thing about a real library is that one might find, among the musty books on dusty shelves, exactly the book you need, even if it was not the one the computerized card catalog sent you to. On March 23, 1997, I had discovered Dewey B. Larson’s Reciprocal System of theory. There, among the many quaint and curious volumes of relativistic quantum field theory, was Beyond Newton, An Explanation of Gravity.

  • Relative Abundance of the Elements (PDF)

    A calculation of the relative abundance of elements--how many of whiat element are present in the Universe, by default.

  • Remodelling the Big Bang (PDF)

    A look at the origins of the Universe.

  • Replacing the Foundations of Astronomy (PDF)

    The historical development of astronomy is described, with respect to the derivation of Kepler's Laws and their subsequent application by Newton. It is described how the two-dimensional nature of movement of planetary bodies is transformed into one-dimensional movement by the application of an inverse-square law. It is also shown how the Newtonian method of adding perturbations to the inverse-square law for the purpose of planetary calculations is simply a repetition of the Ptolemaic epicycles in algebraic form.

  • Reprogramming for an Open Mind (PDF)

    Taking a look at the process of reaching conclusions, and how to identify when you are being directed towards a conclusion--rather than coming to it on your own.

  • Response to Dr. Ronald W. Satz's Resignation from ISUS, Inc.

    Former member Ronald Satz has some honest differences with some ISUS members, but the differences do not warrant his leaving ISUS with the claim that we who remain betray Dewey Larson's seeking after Truth.

  • Review: Beyond Space and Time

    North Pacific, 1995. 374 pp., $29.95, ISBN 0-913138-12-6

    Review by Professors Frank H. Meyer and Otto H. Schmitt

    Dewey B. Larson reports in Beyond Space and Time that humankind is hurt both in science and religion much more by what we know that isn't so than by what we don't know.

  • Review: The Neglected Facts of Science

    This book performs a lasting service to all natural philosophers and physicists. It discloses why and how the physical universe is the world of space and time. Larson's work thus continues the important contribution of Einstein when he challenged and changed some of Newton's conjectures about the nature of space and time. Newton's scholia erroneously avowed that space and time are essentially unrelated (exist absolutely independently of one another).

  • Rubicon (PDF)

    Over the past couple of weeks, I’ve run across the word “Rubicon” a good number of times, right down to the title of last week’s “The 100” episode. I didn’t even know what the word meant, but since I can usually take a hint (when applied with a sledgehammer), I decided to look it up. What I found on was rather interesting.


    The theory of stellar energy generation in the Reciprocal System is stated qualitatively in various works by Mr. Larson, such as Quasars and Pulsars. For the benefit of new readers of Reciprocity, I quote Mr. Larson in full:

  • Scalar Motion (PDF)
    Whenever a new physical theory appears, one of the first objectives of the supporters of that theory is to find a crucial experiment, an experiment whose results agree with the new theory, but are definitely in conflict with its predecessors. This is a difficult undertaking, not only because it is hard to find an experiment of the right kind, but also because the results of that experiment, if an experiment is found, can usually be accommodated to existing theory by ad hoc assumptions of one kind or another. And the scientific community prefers to accept a modified theory of that kind, in preference to an entirely new theory, even if the modifications require such wild ideas as black holes or charmed quarks. Nevertheless, a crucial experiment occasionally does make its appearance.
  • Science Without Apologies (PDF)
    In a well-known Gilbert and Sullivan opera a member of the constabulary undergoes some rather trying experiences in the course of carrying out his duties, and finally breaks into song, telling us that “a policeman’s lot is not a happy one.” In many respects the lot of those who undertake to correct existing errors in any field of thought is similar to that of the policeman. There is no problem in the case of someone who simply makes a discovery in a new area. Both the scientific community and the world at large are ready to welcome a genuine addition to knowledge with some degree of enthusiasm, and they are willing to look tolerantly on any speculation that is not specifically in conflict with established thought, even if it involves something that strains credulity to the utmost, a black hole, for example.
  • Six Representational Modes and the Structure of Photons

    As students of the Reciprocal System of Theory we have become used to a somewhat different set of paradigms than those held by all other students of the physical sciences, and by each of us prior to our acceptance of the concepts embodied within the Reciprocal System. The rest of the scientific community accepts without question the primacy of the observed characteristics of this physical plane of existence.

  • Some Anniversary Thoughts

    This issue of Reciprocity marks its fourth anniversary, and provides a suitable occasion on which to make some comments with respect to the progress that has been made toward the objective that was defined in the first issue: promotion of understanding of the Reciprocal System of physical theory. The most serious obstacle in the way of a new theory in any field is the prevailing tendency to dismiss it summarily on the ground that the a priori probability of its being correct is too low to justify taking the time to examine it.

  • Some Reflections and Comments

    Since my return from the speaking trip through the East and Midwest that I undertook in April and May I have spent considerable time reviewing and analyzing the questions that were asked in the course of the long question and answer sessions that followed each of the eight talks that I gave to college audiences.

  • Some Thoughts on Spin (PDF)

    An investigation into the nature of spin, expanding the concept to include both rotation (spin-1) and solid rotation (spin-1/2).

  • Some Thoughts on the Reciprocal System of Theory (PDF)

    Some observations by Prof. KVK Nehru on the books, Nothing But Motion and New Light on Space and Time, with Larson's replies.

  • Space Travel: Science is Fiction? (PDF)

    It may well be that man is not capable of going boldly where no man has gone before, and the touted "quarantine field" promoted in New Age circles is actually a natural phenomenon and a "safety valve" to prevent space exploration until a specific level of consciousness has been reached.

  • String Theory Analysis (PDF)

    Summary and overview of what I comprehend re the stages, that current physics has been through, and will be at its hoped-for penultimate goal presently, and what its advocates have achieved and partly solved, and what they hope has yet to be solved, and will be solved, gray matter permitting.

  • Sub-Atomic Particle Array: A Revised Hypothesis

    A slightly different derivation of the Reciprocal System of Theory leads to a different hypothesis as the basis of the subatomic particle array. The nature of charge plays a major part in the revised development. This new hypothesis is well founded in basic RS principles and, due to the foundational level from which it extends, will stand as a new view on physical theory in general.

  • Subatomic Mass, Recalculated (PDF)
    A recalculation of Larson's original subatomic particle masses, using more recent values (1995). Includes neutrino updates from the Subatomic Mass, Recalculated, Update paper.
  • Subversive Reflections on the Practice of Physics

    “The transition from a paradigm in crisis to a new one is far from a cumulative process.
    Rather it is a reconstruction of the field from new fundamentals.”

    —Thomas S. Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, pp. 84-85

  • Superconductivity: A Time Region Phenomenon (PDF)

    An analysis of superconductivity, where the superconductive properties are due to birotating electrons, not the temperature of the material.

  • Supernova 1987A

    I have received a number of inquiries as to how well the observations of the supernova that has been observed in the Large Magellanic Cloud agree with the theoretical conclusions about supernovae in general that are expressed in The Universe of Motion. I cannot give a definite answer to this question as yet, since the observational data thus far reported are limited, and to some extent conflicting. However, I can give what may be considered a progress report, based on the situation as it stands in the light of the information that has appeared thus far in the publications accessible to the general public.


    The equation for the internal energy of a substance is

    u = h - pv


    where h is enthalpy, p is pressure, and v is volwne. At zero absolute temperature, the enthalpy is zero.


    For many years scientists and engineers have had available an excellent equation of state for gaseous matter. Now, at last, the Reciprocal System of Dewey B. Larson is able to give us an exact equation of state for solid matter. This paper will present a unified treatment of the subject, with Reference 1 as the starting point.

    I. Volume of Solid as a Function of Temperature with Pressure Constant


    In a previous paper1 I worked out the general form of Newton’s Law of Gravitation and applied it to the special case of a planet orbiting the sun. In this case Newton’s Law was modified by the factor

    1/(1 - v²/c²)

    For the case of an object moving directly toward another object rather than orbiting, the genetal equation reduces to Newton’s Law multiplied by the factor

  • THE INTERACTION OF ALPHA PARTICLES AND GOLDS ATOMS: A New Explanation of Rutherford Scattering


    Nearly all present-day physicists are convinced of the truth of the assertion in the following quotation from Weidner and Sells’ Elementary Modern Physics(1):

    It was by the alphaparticle scattering experiments, suggested by Rutherford, that the existence of atomic nuclei was established.


    From thermodynamics,¹ the general equation of state of a pure substance is



    $$\beta=\frac{1}{V}\left(\frac{\partial V}{\partial T}\right)_P=\ volume\ expansivity\qquad(2)$$



    This paper provides a step-by-step procedure for the calculation of liquid specific volume as a function of composition and temperature, based on the Reciprocal System of D. B. Larson1.  In this theory, each individual molecule may be in the solid, liquid, or gaseous (or vapor) state, regardless of the state of the majority of molecules of the substance.

                First let's define some terms:


    Question: Please provide a detailed rationale of how the RS theory produces the correct answer to this “Lorentz transform” problem:

    L <———|———> R


    Question: How can two photons from separate sources meet if their space-time locations are moving away from each other with the space-time progression?

    Answer :


    In terms of the egs system, the unit of electron charge (and quantity) is calculated by multiplying the Faraday constant by the mass equivalent of unit atomic weight:

    2.89366x1014 esu/g-equiv * 1.65979x10-24 g = 4.80287x10-10 esu

    (ref. [1]). Of course, 4.80287x10-10 esu is equal to 1.602062x10-19 coulombs.


    This paper will present the Reciprocal System theory of electrons and currents and compare it with the conventional theory

    1. The Electron


    Mr. Larson has worked. out the static relations between particles in the time region; specifically, he has calculated the equilibrium interatomic distances for all the elements and many compounds (see pages 27-49 of The Structure of the Physlcal Universe). This paper will explore he dynamic relations between particles in the time region.

  • Technology in the Aquarian Age (PDF)
    A short discussion of the potential impact of the Reciprocal System on humanity.
  • The "Arrow of Time"

    From the mathematical standpoint, the quantity that enters into such relation as the equation of motion can be either positive or negative, and the fact that time is observed to move only in one direction is frequently characterized as an anomaly, a “puzzle.” But there is nothing puzzling about the direction of time if it is viewed in physical terms. Time, as a physical quantity—the time interval between two events, for instance—cannot be less than zero.

  • The Case of the Colliding Photons

    One of the issues that usually comes up at some point during any extended discussion of the fundamentals of the Reciprocal System of theory is what the writers of detective stories would probably call The Case of the Colliding Photons.

  • The Colonization of Tiamat (PDF)

    Are galaxies, far, far away actually solar systems, close, close, nearby? Mounting evidence is definitely pointing to this situation. If this is the case, then Intervention Theory, the concept that says we've been visited by ETs many times in the past, may also have supporting evidence. This paper analyzes the galactic solar system idea and discusses the arrival of the first visitors, the Cyclopeans.

  • The Colonization of Tiamat: The Annunaki Strike Back (PDF)

    A detailed examination of planetary structure, examining various hollow and flat Earth models proposed in ancient days, using an extended "hollow planet" theory to identify lost worlds, lost continents and phantom islands all the way from Heaven to Hell. Continues the plot in Part IV with the arrival of the Annunaki, out to colonize Tiamat to exploit its resources, identifying these lost continents with the domains ruled by the gods.

  • The Conceptual Foundations of Physical Science

    The frontiers of modern science are in the far-out regions, the realms of the very small, the very large, the very fast, the very dense, and so on. It is there that spectacular discoveries are being made, and the boundaries of physical science are being extended into the hitherto unknown. But some of these achievements that have been headlined in the press and in the scientific journals, have had collateral results of even greater significance that have been overlooked by the scientific community. These particular discoveries have given us factual information about some of the fundamental physical entities that have heretofore been accepted as being beyond the range of physical investigation. When we examine all of the implications of this new knowledge, it becomes clear that the prevailing view of the nature of the basic constituents of the physical universe will have to be drastically modified.

  • The Constitution of the United States and the Constitution of the Unified States of the Physical Universe--A Comparison (PDF)

    Here we have a limited parallel between the laws of Northern America and the role that they play in the administration of the life of the inhabitants, living therein and the laws of physics, pertaining to all the states of matter, that exist, or may exist, within the Physical Universe.

  • The Cosmic Background Radiation: Origin and Temperature (PDF)
    A detailed explanation of the origin and structure of cosmic background radiation.
  • The Crab Nebula Pulsar

    Letter to the Editor of Reciprocity:

  • The Density Gradient in White Dwarf Stars (PDF)

    Larson examines the white dwarf stars in light of faster-than-light speeds creating an inverse density structure.

  • The Dimensions of Motion (PDF)

    Some of the most significant consequences are related to the dimensions of this hitherto unrecognized type of motion. The word “dimension” is used in several different senses, but in the sense in which it is applied to space it signifies the number of independent magnitudes that are required for a complete definition of a spatial quantity. It is generally conceded that space is three-dimensional. Thus three independent magnitudes are required for a complete definition of a quantity of space.

  • The Effect of Gravitation on Radiation

    As I pointed out in the article on “Reference Systems” published in the Winter 1977-78 issue of Reciprocity, the representation of the physical universe in a three-dimensional spatial coordinate system is not fully in agreement with reality. This system cannot represent some of the properties that do exist, such as motion in time. whereas it portrays some properties of the universe that actually do not exist, such as the directions of scalar motions.

  • The Fundamentals of Science in the Twenty-First Century (PDF)
    Five thousand years ago, when the invention of writing on clay tablets by the Sumerians first gave the human race an opportunity to leave a permanent record of its thoughts and actions, there was already in existence a rather sophisticated science of astronomy. The priests, who were the scientists of those days, were not only familiar with elementary astronomical facts, such as the apparent movements of the sun, moon and planets, but they had also advanced to the point where they were able to predict eclipses and to calculate the length of the year to within about a half hour of its present accepted value. The premises upon which these calculations and others of the same kind were made were the fundamentals of the science of that day, in the sense in which I am using the term now, that is, they were the most basic of the principles that were used by the science of that day.
  • The Gravitational Limit and Hubble's Law (PDF)

    Gravitation and Space-time Progression (STP) are the two oppositely directed scalar motions that decide the outcome of all physical phenomena in the universe of motion. There are two hitherto unknown features of gravitation that the Reciprocal System has brought to light. The first one, which is relevant to atomic-scale phenomena, is that in the context of the familiar three-dimensional stationary frame of reference, the direction of gravitation reverses at the unit space limit: it manifests as a repulsive force in the time region--the region inside unit space.

  • The Historical Perspective

  • The Inter-Regional Ratio

    At the 1984 ISUS conference in Salt Lake City a discussion of the “inter-regional ratio” concluded with an understanding that each of those concerned should write a statement of his ideas on the subject for publication in Reciprocity. What follows is Dewey B. Larson’s contribution.

  • The Inter-Regional Ratio (PDF)

    An explanation of the Inter-regional ratio, that determines the effectiveness of rotation in the time region on space.

  • The Interaction of Electromagnetism and Gravitation along Equipotential Lines

    The Interaction of Electromagnetism and Gravitation along Equipotential Lines

    A Prelude to Advanced Energy and Propulsion Technology

    Russell Kramer

    When I first encountered the Reciprocal System of Theory it absorbed my attention immediately with its myriad of dynamic concepts.

  • The Large-Scale Structure of the Physical Universe (PDF)

    A look at the giant voids in inter-galactic space, their origin and evolution. Includes a detailed mathematical analysis of the size, structure and lifetime of these cosmic "bubbles" creating the voids.

  • The Larson Number System (PDF)

    A short summary of how Larson's integer numbering system works, and the difference between speed and displacement.

  • The Law of Conservation of Direction (PDF)

    Some students of the Reciprocal System (RS) have been disputing the explanation of the intrinsic structure of the photons, given by Larson, the originator of the RS. No amount of discussion, so far, seemed to throw additional light in overcoming the logical objections raised. An examination of the situation undertaken by the present investigator revealed that a crucial fact of fundamental nature is being missed hitherto, both by the originator and the other students.

  • The Lifetime of the Neutron (PDF)

    A calculation of the mass of the compound neutron, the "neutron" of conventional physics.

  • The Mechanism of the Universe (PDF)

    Principal Address to the First Annual NSA Conference, Minneapolis, Minnesota, August 20, 1976

    The human race, in its modern form, has been observing the universe from the surface of this planet for something like 50,000 years, perhaps as much as 100,000. But only within the last three or four thousand years has it had the capacity to analyze these observations and arrive at conclusions as to their significance. Yet on the basis of this extremely limited experience we somehow feel that we are competent to investigate events which, if they happened at all, happened ten or twenty billion years ago, and other events which, if they are ever going to happen, will not happen for an equally long time into the future.

  • The Mind has No Firewall (PDF)

    In my paper, “New World Religion,” I commented on the fact that “The Mind Has No Firewall,” stating that our minds, those lumps of gray matter that run our body and life, have no protection against a number of non-biological viruses such as subliminal programming, suggestion, behavior modification and even active mind control. Our computers, however, have very extensive “firewalls” that block out all these unwanted intrusions from other computers on the Internet.

  • The Mythical Universe of Modern Astronomy (PDF)

    Transcript of Mr. Larson’s address to the Seventh Annual Convention of the International Society of Unified Science in Philadelphia, USA, on August 13, 1982.

  • The Nature of Existence (PDF)

    What follows will be a discussion of three subjects or questions: 1. What is the nature of physical existence? 2. What is the nature of nonphysical existence? 3. What is the nature of human knowledge?

  • The Nature of Motion
    Abstract: Analysis of the data from observation shows that gravita­tion and the recession of the distant galaxies are negative (inward) and positive (outward) scalar motions respectively, and that some other basic physical phenomena not currently recognized as motions are also motions of this same type. Identification of the scalar nature of these motions enables clarification of a number of long-standing issues in physical science.
  • The Nature of Scalar Rotation (PDF)
    An article by Maurice Gilroy in a recent issue of Reciprocity1 clearly brings to focus the fact that more fundamental theoretical work needs to be done on the rotational motions of atoms. Few years ago, studying the electric ionization characteristics of the elements in the context of the Reciprocal System, I had come to the same conclusion with regard to the non-conformist nature of the lanthanides. Presently I have made a more detailed examination of the mathematical structure of the scalar rotational motion with a view to obtain some insight into these fundamentals. I am reporting in this Paper the results of this study. My conclusions, as yet, are by no means final. However, it is felt desirable, in view of the maiden nature of the exploration, to invite comments and discussion before bestowing further efforts on it.
  • The Nature of Time

    “To attempt a definite statement as to the meaning of so fundamental and underlying a notion as that of time is a task from which even philosophy may shrink,”1 says Richard Tolman in his classic treatise on Relativity. But the “notion” of time is basic in every field of science.

  • The Nature of Truth and How To Manipulate It (PDF)

    A look at how we determine "truth" through the psychological concept of stacked worldviews, and how those worldviews are manipulated at the cultural and societal levels.

  • The New Science of the 21st Century (PDF)

    Larson's keynote address for the third Annual ISUS conference at the University of Utah, Salt Lake City, August 18, 1978. Also published in Frontiers of Science, Volume III, No. 5, July-August, 1981.

  • The Nuclear Atom? (PDF)

    The true theory of the physical universe, from microcosmis to macrocosmos.

  • The Origins of Planetary Rotation (PDF)
    Basically, modern science does not have any explanation of planetary rotation, nor why all the planets spin in the same direction. But thanks to the Reciprocal System of Theory, and the conclusions derived on planetary formation, we now have the answer buried in the "white dwarf" core of the planet, and its intense magnetic field.
  • The Photon as Birotation (PDF)

    Details of the consequences of the birotating photon model.

  • The Photon: Displacement in a Second Scalar Dimension (PDF)

    An alternate description of a photon, using two scalar dimensions to describe its properties.

  • The Photon: Displacement in a Second Scalar Dimension (update) (PDF)

    The development presented here provides a reconciliation of the apparent conflict between the left-right vectorial motion and the inward-outward motion of the photon. This is shown on page 50 and page 98 of Nothing But Motion. For those not familiar with the problem, this photon model in Nothing But Motion requires inward to be left vectorial and then switch to right vectorial in different units of time. Study was given to the problem from every conceivable angle and by applying every principle which related to the motion in question.

  • The Physical Nature of Space (PDF)
    Even at best it is a difficult task to convey a clear understanding of a basically new scientific concept. Regardless of how simple the concept itself may be, or how explicitly it may be set forth by its originator, the human mind is so constituted that it refuses to look at the new idea in the simple and direct light in which it is presented, and instead creates wholly unnecessary difficulties by insisting on placing the innovation within the context of previous thought, rather than viewing it in its own setting.
  • The Physics of Motion (PDF)

    An overview of the physics of motion, published in "Frontiers of Science," July-August, 1982.

  • The Properties of Scalar Motion (PDF)

    How to visualize the concept of scalar motion as differentiated from vectorial motion.

  • The Quasar Paradox?

    Paradoxes Galore

  • The Quaternion Struggle (PDF)

    A brief description of the history of quaternions, and how they got lost for a time in history and came back as Quantum Mechanics.

  • The Search for the Ultimate

    From the very beginning of the kind of disciplined thinking about the physical world that we now call science, one of the major objectives has been to identify its basic constituent, or constituents; to answer the question, What is the world made of? The earliest theories of which we have detailed knowledge, those developed by the Ionians in the years from about 600 to about 400 B.C., and by the Chinese around the same time, were of two general types. One group of philosophers, reasoning from an assumption as to the unity of nature, argued for a single constituent. Water was the usual choice, although there was some support for air. Another group contended that the great multiplicity of physical forms required the existence of a number of basic constituents. The most popular choice among the early investigators in the West was a four-element universe, constructed of earth, water, air, and fire, an identification that achieved a kind of an official status when it was accepted by Aristotle. The Chinese recognized five basic elements, omitting air and adding metal and wood.

  • The Simple Essence of Dewey B. Larson's Reciprocal System of Physics (PDF)

    An overview of the universality of the Reciprocal System model, without having to wade through volumes of heavy, detailed text to see it.

  • The Social and Technological Implications of the Reciprocal System of Theory


    Throughout history, many scientific theories and paradigms (in the physical science, most certainly), have ushered in whole new eras of technologies. Many of these technologies have had a profound impact both in improving our standard of living, and changing the global ecology. In some instances, the technology came first, and the theory which explained it came later. The Reciprocal System of theory represents a new scientific "paradigm" with many profound implications, both socially and technologically.

  • The Space-Time Universe (PDF)
    A five-part series that summarizes the work of Dewey Larson's Reciprocal System and compares it to Theosophy, using The Secret Doctrine and The Mahatma Letters for reference.
  • The Tao of Larson (PDF)
    A comparison between the taijitu symbol used in Eastern philosophies to the boundary structures used in the Reciprocal System.
  • The Uncommitted Investigator (PDF)

    A short discussion on the uncommitted investigator, those basement researchers that produce new knowledge with their own skills and commitments, without corporate control.

  • The Wave Mechanics (PDF)

    A basic introduction examining motion in the time region as a conceptual explanation of the wave mechanics concept.

  • Theoretical Evaluation of Planck's Constant (PDF)

    A theoretical evaluation of the value of Planck's constant, derived from the concepts of the Reciprocal System.

  • Theory of Solids

    The objective of the project being undertaken by Professor Meyer and his associates is to test the validity of the explanation of the cohesion of solids derived from a development of the consequences of the fundamental postulates of the Reciprocal System of physical theory, the basic premise of which is that the physical universe is composed entirely of discrete units of motion.

  • Time Is The Essence
    Dewey B. Larson is an anachronism in the modern scientific world. Whatever else may be said of modern science, it is generally true that it has become, and is further becoming, less and less controversial. The great success of science seems to have instilled into ’the man in the street’ and scientist alike, an exaggerated respect, akin to religious reverence. Most scientists, preoccupied as they are with the obscurities of their own narrow field, rarely, if ever, question the underlying assumptions on which science rests. Larson does.
  • Time and Timelines (PDF)

    A discussion on the nature of time and the temporal experiments run during the Phoenix III project.

  • Time of Planetary Perihelion Motion (PDF)

    Perihelion is the name for a discrete location a planet occupies momentarily once during every cycle of its periodic motion about the sun; the planet when at this location is nearest the sun. The location does not remain the same from one cycle to the next. Since successive cycles occur at different times, the location changes with the progress of time. This displacement of place with time constitutes perihelion motion of a spatial location at definite, measurable time and motion rates. The object of this paper is twofold: A.

  • Twenty Years' Progress (PDF)
    The Reciprocal System of physical theory was first brought to the attention of the scientific community about twenty years ago in a book entitled The Structure of the Physical Universe. That book is now out of print, and for the last six or eight months I have been working on the first volume of a revised and greatly enlarged edition which, if all goes well, will be ready for publication in the not too distant future. One of the tasks that necessarily had to be undertaken in preparing for the revision was to make a detailed review of the entire subject matter of the original work, including the portions that were omitted for the published text in order to limit the size of the book. This review now offers a good opportunity to assess the amount of progress that has been made in the development of the theory during the twenty-year interval.
  • Ultimate Analysis

    This is an analysis of those schools of thought and endeavour, which formulate and develop theories and paradigms, and one of its purposes is to highlight source(s) of dissonance, whether cognitive or unknown, with special reference to the Reciprocal System of Theory.

    Essentially where you read Analysis, Analyst & Analytical you may assume it encompasses any row of three items in TABLE 1 below.

  • Updated Values for Unit Space and Unit Time (PDF)
    A recalculation of the values for the natural units of space and time, based on the Rydberg Constant at infinity.

    Kip Thorne introduces his article on black holes in Scientific American by stating:

  • Where's the Kaboom? (PDF)

    The question arose in response to a paper put out by Miles Mathis titled, “The Bikini Atoll Nuclear Tests Were Faked,” which went on to demonstrate, through publicly available records, the many inconsistencies in the tests. LoneBear’s RS2 analysis was quite interesting, describing how nuclear fission works in the Reciprocal System (which has a different structure to the atom). This is a summary of that research, with additional information.

  • Why is the Periodic Table Askew? (PDF)

    It has been suggested that the new arrangement of the periodic table proposed in Dewey B. Larson’s Nothing But Motion entails some fundamental shortcomings in its representation of the relationships among the elements.1 The following remarks are intended to clarify the issue with the aid of some historical considerations.

    Larson describes the main innovation of his table in the following terms:

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