30 Atom Building

Chapter XXX

Atom Building

In the earlier discussion of the characteristics of the various sub-material particles it was pointed out that there must be an excess of neutrinos present in the material universe at all times because these combinations cannot be utilized in the formation of matter in anything like the quantities in which they are produced. Obviously the presence of any such large concentration of particles of a particular type can be expected to have some kind of a significant effect on the physical system. We have already examined a wide variety of electrical phenomena resulting from the analogous excess of electrons. The neutrino, however, is more elusive and there is very little direct experimental information available concerning this particle and its behavior. We will therefore have to rely mainly upon theoretical deductions to trace the course of events until we come to effects upon matter which can be observed and measured.

We can logically conclude that in some environments the neutrinos exist in the uncharged condition, just as we find that the electron normally has no charge in the terrestrial environment. In this condition the neutrino has a net displacement of zero, and it is therefore able to move freely in either space or time. Furthermore, it is not affected by gravitation or by electrical or magnetic forces, since it has neither mass nor charge. It therefore has no motion with respect to space-time, which means that from the viewpoint of a stationary reference system the neutrinos produced at any given point move outward in all directions at unit velocity in the same manner as radiation. Each material aggregate in the universe is therefore exposed to a constant flux of neutrinos which may be regarded as a special kind of radiation.

While the neutrino is neutral with respect to space-time because the displacements of its separate motions add up to zero, it actually has effective displacements in both the electric and magnetic dimensions. It is therefore capable of taking either a magnetic or an electric charge. For reasons stated in the earlier pages the magnetic motion takes precedence over the electric motion where either is possible and the charge of a charged neutrino is therefore magnetic. The direction of the charge is, of course, opposite to that of the magnetic rotation, and since the latter is in time the charge is a space displacement. Inasmuch as this charge is the only significant feature of the structure, the charged neutrino is essentially nothing but a mobile unit of space.

As a space displacement the charged neutrino is subject to the same limitations as the analogous uncharged electron; it can move freely through the time displacements of matter but it is barred from passage through open space. Any neutrino which acquires a charge while passing through matter is therefore trapped and is unable to escape from the material aggregate unless the charge can be eliminated. At first the proportion of neutrinos captured in passing through a newly formed aggregate is probably small but as the number of charged particles within the aggregate builds up, increasing what we may call the magnetic temperature, the tendency toward capture becomes greater. Most of the neutrinos resulting from cosmic ray decay processes are also charged and join the captured particles. Being rotational in character the magnetic motion is not radiated away in the manner of the thermal motion and the increase of the neutrino population is therefore a cumulative process. There will inevitably be some differences in the rate of build-up due to local conditions, but in general the older a material aggregate becomes the higher its magnetic temperature rises. The ultimate result of this process will be discussed later.

As in the analogous thermal motion, the motion of the neutrinos (space) relative to matter is equivalent to motion of matter relative to space (the Principle of Inversion). The material aggregate is therefore in equilibrium with the neutrinos from the standpoint of magnetic temperature. At some stage of the rise in this magnetic temperature the first magnetic ionization level is reached. The situation at this point is the same as that existing at the first electric ionization level. The magnetic energy corresponding to the prevailing magnetic temperature is now equal to the energy required for one unit of magnetic vibration of an atom, and the latter is therefore set into vibrational motion. The motion of the atom relative to space (the neutrino) is the inverse of the motion of the neutrino with respect to time (the atomic displacement) and the atom therefore acquires a vibrational displacement in time. This is a magnetic charge similar to the charges discussed in connection with the general subject of magnetism, but opposite in space-time direction; that is, it is a time displacement rather than a space displacement: a difference which has a profound effect on the participation of the charges in physical phenomena. The ordinary magnetic charge is a foreign element in the material system: a magnetic space displacement in a structure based upon magnetic time displacements. Magnetism therefore plays a detached part of relatively small importance in the local system. The oppositely directed magnetic charges resulting from the magnetic ionization process, on the contrary, are fully compatible with the basic structure of the atoms of matter and are able to join with the magnetic rotational displacement as integral parts of the basic rotational system of the atom. A charge of this kind is not inherently stable, as the direction of the charge must oppose that of the rotation to achieve stability, but this motion we are now discussing is a forced charge. The charges of the neutrinos are stable and the coexisting atoms are forced to acquire the equivalent charges necessary for equilibrium.

In view of the very significant difference in behavior between the two oppositely directed magnetic vibrations we will not use the term “magnetic charge” in application to the vibrational time displacement which we are now discussing, but will call this a gravitational charge. The motion which constitutes such a charge is identical with the magnetic rotation of the atoms except for the fact that it reverses direction and is therefore effective only during half of the vibration period. Each unit of gravitational charge is therefore equivalent to half of a natural unit of electric rotational displacement. For convenience this half unit has been taken as the unit of atomic weight or atomic mass and the atomic mass of a gravitationally charged atom is therefore equal to 2Z + G, where Z is the atomic number and G is the number of units of gravitational charge.

Inasmuch as the gravitational charge is variable the atoms of an element do not all have the same total primary mass but cover a range of values depending on the size of the factor G. The different states which each element can assume by reason of the variable gravitational charge will be identified as isotopes of the element and the mass on the 2Z + G basis is the isotopic mass. As the elements occur naturally on the earth the various isotopes of each element are almost always in the same proportions and each element therefore has an average isotopic mass which is recognized as the atomic weight of that element. From the foregoing discussion it is evident that the atomic weight thus determined reflects local conditions and does not necessarily have the same value in a different environment.

Like the electric and magnetic charges, the charge of the neutrino with which the gravitational charge is in equilibrium is beyond the unit level and in the time-space region. The atomic rotation, as we have found, is in the time region. The relation between the vibrational and rotational motions is therefore between mv and mr2. Furthermore, the time region motion is subject to the factor 156.44, which represents the ratio of the total to the effective motion. Denoting the magnetic ionization level as I, we then have the equilibrium relation:

mv = I mr2 / 156.44


In this equation mr is expressed in the full sized mass units (two units of atomic mass) and mv in the half-size vibrational units.

The value of mv derived from equation 137 is the theoretical number of units of vibrational mass which will normally be acquired by an atom of rotational mass m, if raised to the magnetic ionization level I. It is quite obvious from the available information that the magnetic ionization level on the surface of the earth is unity and a calculation for the element lead on this unit basis, to illustrate the application of the equation, results in mv = 43. Adding the 164 units of rotational mass corresponding to atomic number 82 we arrive at a theoretical atomic mass of 207. The experimental value is 207.2.

This close agreement is not quite as significant as it appears. Actually there are stable isotopes of lead with isotopic masses ranging from 204 to 208. The value obtained from equation 137 is not necessarily the atomic mass nor the isotopic mass of the most stable isotope; it is the center of a zone of isotopic stability. Because of the individual characteristics of the elements the actual median of the stable isotopes and the average atomic mass may be off set to some extent from this theoretical center of stability, but the deviation is generally small. The variation of the atomic weight increment from the theoretical value of mv exceeds four units in only three of the first 92 elements, and sixty percent of these elements deviate only one unit or not at all.

This situation is shown in detail in Table CVII. The second column in the tabulation gives the values of mv calculated from equation 137. Column 3 is the theoretical equilibrium mass, 2Z + mv, taken to the nearest unit since the gravitational charge does not exist in fractional units. Column 4 is the observed atomic weight, also expressed in terms of the nearest integer, except where the excess is almost exactly one-half unit. Column 5 is the difference between the calculated equilibrium mass and the observed atomic weight. The trans-uranium elements are omitted since these elements cannot have (terrestrial) atomic weights in the sense in which the term is used in application to the stable elements.

The width of the zone of stability is quite variable, ranging from zero for technetium and promethium to a little over ten percent of the rotational mass. The reasons for the individual properties in this respect have not yet been determined. One of the interesting and probably significant points in this connection is that the odd-numbered elements generally have much narrower stability limits than the even numbered elements. Isotopes which are outside this zone of stability undergo modifications which have the result of moving the atom into the stable zone. The nature of these processes will be examined later.

It has previously been established that the maximum limit for magnetic rotational displacement is four units. The elements of rotational group 4B have magnetic rotational displacements 4-4 and it is possible to build this group up to 4-4-31, which corresponds to atomic number 117, without exceeding the maximum possible magnetic displacement. The next step does bring the magnetic rotation in one dimension up to the point where it exceeds the limit, and element 118 is therefore unstable and will disintegrate promptly if it is ever formed. All combinations above 118 (rotational atomic mass 236) are similarly unstable, whereas all elements and sub-material combinations from 117 down are stable at a zero level of magnetic ionization.

Table CVII
Atomic Mass Equilibrium Values

Z mv ma Obs. Diff. Z mv ma Obs. Diff.
1 .01 2 1 -1 47 14.12 108 108 -
2 .03 4 4 - 48 14.73 111 112.5 +1.5
3 .06 6 7 +1 49 15.35 113 115 +2
4 .10 8 9 +1 50 15.98 116 119 +3
5 .16 10 11 +1 51 16.63 119 123 +4
6 .23 12 12 - 52 17.28 121 129 +7
7 .31 14 14 - 53 17.96 124 127 +3
8 .41 16 16 - 54 18.64 127 131 +4
9 .52 19 19 - 55 19.34 129 133 +4
10 .64 21 20 -1 56 20.05 132 137 +5
11 .77 23 23 - 57 20.77 135 139 +4
12 .92 25 24 -1 58 21.50 138 140 +2
13 1.08 27 27 - 59 22.25 140 141 +1
14 1.25 29 28 -1 60 23.01 143 144 +1
15 1.44 31 31 - 61 23.78 146 147 +1
16 1.64 34 32 -2 62 24.57 149 150 +1
17 1.85 36 35.5 -0.5 63 25.37 151 152 +1
18 2.07 38 40 +2 64 26.18 154 157 +3
19 2.31 40 39 -1 65 27.01 157 159 +2
20 2.56 43 40 -3 66 27.84 160 162.5 +2.5
21 2.82 45 45 - 67 28.69 163 165 +2
22 3.09 47 48 +1 68 29.56 166 167 +1
23 3.38 49 51 +2 69 30.43 168 169.5 +1.5
24 3.68 52 52 - 70 31.32 171 173 +2
25 4.00 54 55 +1 71 32.22 174 175 +1
26 4.32 56 56 - 72 33.14 177 179 +2
27 4.66 59 59 - 73 34.06 180 181 +1
28 5.01 61 59 -2 74 35.00 183 184 +1
29 5.38 63 63.5 +0.5 75 35.96 186 186 -
30 5.75 66 65 -1 76 36.92 189 190 +1
31 6.14 68 70 +2 77 37.90 192 193 +1
32 6.55 71 73 +2 78 38.89 195 195 -
33 6.96 73 75 +2 79 39.89 198 197 -1
34 7.39 75 79 +4 80 40.91 201 201 -
35 7.83 78 80 +2 81 41.94 204 204 -
36 8.28 80 84 +4 82 42.98 207 207 -
37 8.75 83 85.5 +2.5 83 44.03 210 209 -1
38 9.23 85 88 +3 84 45.10 213 210 -3
39 9.72 88 89 +1 85 46.18 216 210 -6
40 10.23 90 91 +1 86 47.28 219 222 +3
41 10.74 93 93 - 87 48.38 222 223 +1
42 11.28 95 96 +1 88 49.50 226 226 -
43 11.82 98 99 +1 89 50.63 229 227 -2
44 12.37 100 102 +2 90 51.78 232 232 -
45 12.94 103 103 - 91 52.93 235 231 -4
46 13.53 106 107 +1 92 54.10 238 238 -

At a higher ionization level the vibrational mass is added to the rotational mass and the stability limit is reached at a lower atomic number. As indicated by Table CVII, the equilibrium mass of uranium, element 92, is 238 at the unit ionization level. This exceeds the 236 limit and uranium, together with all elements above it in the atomic series, is unstable in such an environment. Here we also encounter a probability effect similar to those resulting from the distribution of molecular velocities in many of the phenomena previously examined. If all of the magnetic vibrational motion conformed exactly to the magnetic temperature equivalent of the unit ionization level, the elements below uranium would all be stable from the standpoint of the overall limit and would be subject to decay only to the extent that individual isotopes might be outside the isotopic stability zone. Actually the magnetic temperature at the earth’s surface is somewhere in between the first and second ionization levels, and because of the probability distribution the magnetic temperature of some of the individual atoms occasionally rises high enough to reach the second ionization level. This increases the vibrational mass and moves the stability limit farther down the atomic series. The lowest element which theoretically could be affected by this situation is gold, element 79, for which the total mass at two units of ionization is 238, but the probability of the second ionization decreases as we move down the atomic series from uranium to gold, and while the first few elements below uranium are very unstable, the activity is negligible beyond bismuth, element 83.

As the magnetic ionization level rises the stability limit drops still lower in terms of atomic number. It should be noted, however, that the rate of decrease slows down rapidly. The first stage of ionization reduces the stability limit from 118 to 92, a difference of 26 in atomic number. The second ionization causes a decrease of 13 units, the third only 8, and so on. The significance of the higher ionization levels and the nature of the action initiated when the ionization limit is reached will be discussed later.

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